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Urban-Rural Infant Mortality Disparities by Race and Ethnicity and Cause of Death.
Am J Prev Med. 2020 02; 58(2):254-260.AJ

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Infant mortality rates are higher in nonmetropolitan areas versus large metropolitan areas. Variation by race/ethnicity and cause of death has not been assessed. Urban-rural infant mortality rate differences were quantified by race/ethnicity and cause of death.

METHODS

National Vital Statistics System linked birth/infant death data (2014-2016) were analyzed in 2019 by 3 urban-rural county classifications: large metropolitan, medium/small metropolitan, and nonmetropolitan. Excess infant mortality rates (rate differences) by urban-rural classification were calculated relative to large metropolitan areas overall and for each racial/ethnic group. The number of excess deaths, population attributable fraction, and proportion of excess deaths attributable to underlying causes of death was calculated.

RESULTS

Nonmetropolitan areas had the highest excess infant mortality rate overall. Excess infant mortality rates were substantially lower for Hispanic infants than other races/ethnicities. Overall, 7.4% of infant deaths would be prevented if all areas had the infant mortality rate of large metropolitan areas. With more than half of births occurring outside of large metropolitan areas, the population attributable fraction was highest for American Indian/Alaska Natives (20.3%) and whites, non-Hispanic (14.3%). Excess infant mortality rates in both nonmetropolitan and medium/small metropolitan areas were primarily attributable to sudden unexpected infant deaths (42.3% and 31.9%) and congenital anomalies (30.1% and 26.8%). This pattern was consistent for all racial/ethnic groups except black, non-Hispanic infants, for whom preterm-related and sudden unexpected infant deaths accounted for the largest share of excess infant mortality rates.

CONCLUSIONS

Infant mortality increases with rurality, and excess infant mortality rates are predominantly attributable to sudden unexpected infant deaths and congenital anomalies, with differences by race/ethnicity regarding magnitude and cause of death.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Epidemic Intelligence Service, Division of Scientific Education and Professional Development, Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, Maryland; U.S Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville, Maryland. Electronic address: nrc1@cdc.gov.Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, Maryland.Office of Epidemiology and Research, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31735480

Citation

Womack, Lindsay S., et al. "Urban-Rural Infant Mortality Disparities By Race and Ethnicity and Cause of Death." American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 58, no. 2, 2020, pp. 254-260.
Womack LS, Rossen LM, Hirai AH. Urban-Rural Infant Mortality Disparities by Race and Ethnicity and Cause of Death. Am J Prev Med. 2020;58(2):254-260.
Womack, L. S., Rossen, L. M., & Hirai, A. H. (2020). Urban-Rural Infant Mortality Disparities by Race and Ethnicity and Cause of Death. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 58(2), 254-260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2019.09.010
Womack LS, Rossen LM, Hirai AH. Urban-Rural Infant Mortality Disparities By Race and Ethnicity and Cause of Death. Am J Prev Med. 2020;58(2):254-260. PubMed PMID: 31735480.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Urban-Rural Infant Mortality Disparities by Race and Ethnicity and Cause of Death. AU - Womack,Lindsay S, AU - Rossen,Lauren M, AU - Hirai,Ashley H, Y1 - 2019/11/15/ PY - 2019/05/14/received PY - 2019/09/16/revised PY - 2019/09/17/accepted PY - 2019/11/19/pubmed PY - 2020/11/26/medline PY - 2019/11/19/entrez SP - 254 EP - 260 JF - American journal of preventive medicine JO - Am J Prev Med VL - 58 IS - 2 N2 - INTRODUCTION: Infant mortality rates are higher in nonmetropolitan areas versus large metropolitan areas. Variation by race/ethnicity and cause of death has not been assessed. Urban-rural infant mortality rate differences were quantified by race/ethnicity and cause of death. METHODS: National Vital Statistics System linked birth/infant death data (2014-2016) were analyzed in 2019 by 3 urban-rural county classifications: large metropolitan, medium/small metropolitan, and nonmetropolitan. Excess infant mortality rates (rate differences) by urban-rural classification were calculated relative to large metropolitan areas overall and for each racial/ethnic group. The number of excess deaths, population attributable fraction, and proportion of excess deaths attributable to underlying causes of death was calculated. RESULTS: Nonmetropolitan areas had the highest excess infant mortality rate overall. Excess infant mortality rates were substantially lower for Hispanic infants than other races/ethnicities. Overall, 7.4% of infant deaths would be prevented if all areas had the infant mortality rate of large metropolitan areas. With more than half of births occurring outside of large metropolitan areas, the population attributable fraction was highest for American Indian/Alaska Natives (20.3%) and whites, non-Hispanic (14.3%). Excess infant mortality rates in both nonmetropolitan and medium/small metropolitan areas were primarily attributable to sudden unexpected infant deaths (42.3% and 31.9%) and congenital anomalies (30.1% and 26.8%). This pattern was consistent for all racial/ethnic groups except black, non-Hispanic infants, for whom preterm-related and sudden unexpected infant deaths accounted for the largest share of excess infant mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS: Infant mortality increases with rurality, and excess infant mortality rates are predominantly attributable to sudden unexpected infant deaths and congenital anomalies, with differences by race/ethnicity regarding magnitude and cause of death. SN - 1873-2607 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31735480/Urban_Rural_Infant_Mortality_Disparities_by_Race_and_Ethnicity_and_Cause_of_Death_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0749-3797(19)30417-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -