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Different metabolism of EPA, DPA and DHA in humans: A double-blind cross-over study.

Abstract

This study aimed to compare eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporated into red blood cells (RBC) phospholipids (PL), plasma PL, plasma triglyceride (TAG), and plasma cholesteryl ester (CE) fractions, and the metabolomics profiles in a double-blind cross-over study. Twelve female healthy subjects randomly consumed 1 g per day for 6 days of pure EPA, DPA, or DHA. The placebo treatment was olive oil. The fasting venous blood was taken at days 0, 3 and 6, and the RBC PL and plasma lipid fractions were separated for fatty acid determination using thin layer chromatography followed by gas chromatography. Plasma metabolites were analyzed by UHPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap/MS. Supplemental EPA significantly increased the concentrations of EPA in RBC PL (days 3 and 6). For subjects consuming the DPA supplement, the concentrations of both DPA and EPA were significantly increased in RBC PL over a 6-day period, respectively. For plasma PL fraction, EPA and DPA supplementation significantly increased the concentrations of EPA and DPA at both days 3 and 6, respectively. Supplemental DHA significantly increased the concentrations of DHA in plasma PL at day 6. For plasma TAG fraction, supplementation with EPA and DPA significantly increased the concentrations of EPA and DPA at both days 3 and 6, respectively. After DHA supplementation, significant increases in the concentrations of DHA were found relative to baseline at both days 3 and 6. For plasma CE fraction, EPA supplementation significantly increased the concentrations of EPA (days 3 and 6) and DPA (days 6), respectively. Supplemental DPA significantly increased the concentrations of EPA at day 6. Meanwhile, the concentrations of DHA were significantly increased over a 6-day period of intervention after subjects consuming the DHA supplements. There were a total of 922 plasma metabolites identified using metabolomics analyses. Supplementation with DPA and DHA significantly increased the levels of sphingosine 1-phosphate (P for DPA = 0.025, P for DHA = 0.029) and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin A1 (P for DPA = 0.034; P for DHA = 0.021) in comparison with olive oil group. Additionally, supplementation with EPA (P = 0.007) and DHA (P = 0.005) significantly reduced the levels of linoleyl carnitine, compared with olive oil group. This study shows that DPA might act as a reservoir of n-3 LCP incorporated into blood lipid fractions, metabolized into DHA, and retro-converted back to EPA. Metabolomics analyses indicate that supplemental EPA, DPA and DHA have shared and differentiated metabolites. The differences of these metabolic biomarkers should be investigated in additional studies.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Nutrition and Health, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia; Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Food, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.Institute of Nutrition and Health, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China; Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address: duoli@qdu.edu.cn.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31740197

Citation

Guo, Xiao-Fei, et al. "Different Metabolism of EPA, DPA and DHA in Humans: a Double-blind Cross-over Study." Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids, vol. 158, 2020, p. 102033.
Guo XF, Tong WF, Ruan Y, et al. Different metabolism of EPA, DPA and DHA in humans: A double-blind cross-over study. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2020;158:102033.
Guo, X. F., Tong, W. F., Ruan, Y., Sinclair, A. J., & Li, D. (2020). Different metabolism of EPA, DPA and DHA in humans: A double-blind cross-over study. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids, 158, 102033. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2019.102033
Guo XF, et al. Different Metabolism of EPA, DPA and DHA in Humans: a Double-blind Cross-over Study. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2020;158:102033. PubMed PMID: 31740197.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Different metabolism of EPA, DPA and DHA in humans: A double-blind cross-over study. AU - Guo,Xiao-Fei, AU - Tong,Wen-Feng, AU - Ruan,Yue, AU - Sinclair,Andrew J, AU - Li,Duo, Y1 - 2019/11/12/ PY - 2019/09/19/received PY - 2019/11/11/revised PY - 2019/11/11/accepted PY - 2019/11/20/pubmed PY - 2021/5/29/medline PY - 2019/11/20/entrez KW - Blood lipid fraction KW - Docosahexaenoic acid KW - Docosapentaenoic acid KW - Eicosapentaenoic acid KW - Metabolomics SP - 102033 EP - 102033 JF - Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids JO - Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids VL - 158 N2 - This study aimed to compare eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporated into red blood cells (RBC) phospholipids (PL), plasma PL, plasma triglyceride (TAG), and plasma cholesteryl ester (CE) fractions, and the metabolomics profiles in a double-blind cross-over study. Twelve female healthy subjects randomly consumed 1 g per day for 6 days of pure EPA, DPA, or DHA. The placebo treatment was olive oil. The fasting venous blood was taken at days 0, 3 and 6, and the RBC PL and plasma lipid fractions were separated for fatty acid determination using thin layer chromatography followed by gas chromatography. Plasma metabolites were analyzed by UHPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap/MS. Supplemental EPA significantly increased the concentrations of EPA in RBC PL (days 3 and 6). For subjects consuming the DPA supplement, the concentrations of both DPA and EPA were significantly increased in RBC PL over a 6-day period, respectively. For plasma PL fraction, EPA and DPA supplementation significantly increased the concentrations of EPA and DPA at both days 3 and 6, respectively. Supplemental DHA significantly increased the concentrations of DHA in plasma PL at day 6. For plasma TAG fraction, supplementation with EPA and DPA significantly increased the concentrations of EPA and DPA at both days 3 and 6, respectively. After DHA supplementation, significant increases in the concentrations of DHA were found relative to baseline at both days 3 and 6. For plasma CE fraction, EPA supplementation significantly increased the concentrations of EPA (days 3 and 6) and DPA (days 6), respectively. Supplemental DPA significantly increased the concentrations of EPA at day 6. Meanwhile, the concentrations of DHA were significantly increased over a 6-day period of intervention after subjects consuming the DHA supplements. There were a total of 922 plasma metabolites identified using metabolomics analyses. Supplementation with DPA and DHA significantly increased the levels of sphingosine 1-phosphate (P for DPA = 0.025, P for DHA = 0.029) and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin A1 (P for DPA = 0.034; P for DHA = 0.021) in comparison with olive oil group. Additionally, supplementation with EPA (P = 0.007) and DHA (P = 0.005) significantly reduced the levels of linoleyl carnitine, compared with olive oil group. This study shows that DPA might act as a reservoir of n-3 LCP incorporated into blood lipid fractions, metabolized into DHA, and retro-converted back to EPA. Metabolomics analyses indicate that supplemental EPA, DPA and DHA have shared and differentiated metabolites. The differences of these metabolic biomarkers should be investigated in additional studies. SN - 1532-2823 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31740197/Different_metabolism_of_EPA_DPA_and_DHA_in_humans:_A_double_blind_cross_over_study_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0952-3278(19)30190-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -