Comparison of radical and non-radical activated persulfate systems for the degradation of imidacloprid in water.Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2020 Jan 30; 188:109891.EE
The study focuses on degradation efficiency of non-radical activation and radical activation systems of persulfate (PS) to degrade imidacloprid (IMI) by using sodium persulfate (SPS) as PS source. Copper oxide (CuO)-SPS and CuO/biochar (BC)-SPS were selected as PS non-radical activation systems, and pyrite (PyR)-SPS was selected as PS radical activation system. The degradation by CuO-SPS, CuO/BC-SPS and PyR-SPS systems was investigated from acidic to basic conditions (pH 3.0-11.0). Highest degradation by CuO-SPS and CuO/BC-SPS systems was achieved over pH 11.0. In contrast, highest degradation by PyR-SPS system was achieved over pH 3.0, however, PyR-SPS system was also found effective up to pH 9.0. It was found that degradation was more efficient in PS radical activation system, indicating that IMI could be oxidized by radicals rather than by activated PS. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis was carried out to investigate the generation of sulfate (SO4-) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals, which indicated the presence of SO4- and OH in CuO-SPS, CuO/BC and PyR-SPS systems. However, free radical quenching analysis indicated that radicals were main reactive oxygen species for degradation. The lower degradation in PS non-radical activation systems was probably resulted from radicals existed as minor reactive oxygen species. The findings indicated that non-radical oxidation systems showed low reality for degradation and good degradation could be achieved by radical oxidation system. The degradation was also carried out in real waters to investigate the potential applicability of applied systems, which supported PyR-SPS system for effective degradation.