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Assessing the limit of detection of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and immunoassay strips for fentanyl in a real-world setting.
Drug Alcohol Rev. 2020 01; 39(1):98-102.DA

Abstract

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS

Drug checking is a harm reduction intervention increasingly used in the context of the opioid overdose epidemic. The aim of the study was to determine the limit of detection for fentanyl of two point-of-care drug checking technologies.

DESIGN AND METHODS

Samples tested at point-of-care using Bruker Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and BTNX fentanyl immunoassay strips were sent for confirmatory laboratory analysis using quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) spectroscopy. Concentrations by weight were determined and compared to results obtained with point-of-care methods.

RESULTS

In total, 283 samples were sent for qNMR analysis; among these, 173 (61.1%) tested positive for fentanyl. As determined by qNMR, fentanyl concentration by weight ranged from 1% to 91%. Among these 173 samples, fentanyl was not detected in 30 (17.3%) samples by FTIR and in 4 (2.3%) samples by test strip. Samples containing fentanyl that went undetected by FTIR had concentrations ≤10%. The four samples containing fentanyl that went undetected by test strip had concentrations ≤5% (i.e. 1%, 3%, 4%, 5%).

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

Fentanyl immunoassay strips were able to consistently detect the presence of fentanyl in samples at lower concentrations than FTIR spectroscopy. Given that FTIR spectroscopy is able to quantify content, mixture and concentrations on an array of compounds beyond just fentanyl but requires concentrations generally greater than 10%, these findings provide evidence for use of FTIR spectroscopy and immunoassay strips in combination to compensate for the limitations of each technology alone.

Authors+Show Affiliations

British Columbia Centre on Substance Use, Vancouver, Canada.British Columbia Centre on Substance Use, Vancouver, Canada.British Columbia Centre on Substance Use, Vancouver, Canada.Vancouver Coastal Health, Vancouver, Canada. School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.Health Canada, Drug Analysis Service, Burnaby, Canada.British Columbia Centre on Substance Use, Vancouver, Canada. Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.British Columbia Centre on Substance Use, Vancouver, Canada. Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31746056

Citation

McCrae, Karen, et al. "Assessing the Limit of Detection of Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Immunoassay Strips for Fentanyl in a Real-world Setting." Drug and Alcohol Review, vol. 39, no. 1, 2020, pp. 98-102.
McCrae K, Tobias S, Grant C, et al. Assessing the limit of detection of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and immunoassay strips for fentanyl in a real-world setting. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2020;39(1):98-102.
McCrae, K., Tobias, S., Grant, C., Lysyshyn, M., Laing, R., Wood, E., & Ti, L. (2020). Assessing the limit of detection of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and immunoassay strips for fentanyl in a real-world setting. Drug and Alcohol Review, 39(1), 98-102. https://doi.org/10.1111/dar.13004
McCrae K, et al. Assessing the Limit of Detection of Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Immunoassay Strips for Fentanyl in a Real-world Setting. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2020;39(1):98-102. PubMed PMID: 31746056.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Assessing the limit of detection of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and immunoassay strips for fentanyl in a real-world setting. AU - McCrae,Karen, AU - Tobias,Samuel, AU - Grant,Cameron, AU - Lysyshyn,Mark, AU - Laing,Richard, AU - Wood,Evan, AU - Ti,Lianping, Y1 - 2019/11/19/ PY - 2019/08/31/received PY - 2019/10/08/revised PY - 2019/10/10/accepted PY - 2019/11/21/pubmed PY - 2020/12/1/medline PY - 2019/11/21/entrez KW - drug checking KW - fentanyl KW - harm reduction KW - opioids SP - 98 EP - 102 JF - Drug and alcohol review JO - Drug Alcohol Rev VL - 39 IS - 1 N2 - INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Drug checking is a harm reduction intervention increasingly used in the context of the opioid overdose epidemic. The aim of the study was to determine the limit of detection for fentanyl of two point-of-care drug checking technologies. DESIGN AND METHODS: Samples tested at point-of-care using Bruker Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and BTNX fentanyl immunoassay strips were sent for confirmatory laboratory analysis using quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) spectroscopy. Concentrations by weight were determined and compared to results obtained with point-of-care methods. RESULTS: In total, 283 samples were sent for qNMR analysis; among these, 173 (61.1%) tested positive for fentanyl. As determined by qNMR, fentanyl concentration by weight ranged from 1% to 91%. Among these 173 samples, fentanyl was not detected in 30 (17.3%) samples by FTIR and in 4 (2.3%) samples by test strip. Samples containing fentanyl that went undetected by FTIR had concentrations ≤10%. The four samples containing fentanyl that went undetected by test strip had concentrations ≤5% (i.e. 1%, 3%, 4%, 5%). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Fentanyl immunoassay strips were able to consistently detect the presence of fentanyl in samples at lower concentrations than FTIR spectroscopy. Given that FTIR spectroscopy is able to quantify content, mixture and concentrations on an array of compounds beyond just fentanyl but requires concentrations generally greater than 10%, these findings provide evidence for use of FTIR spectroscopy and immunoassay strips in combination to compensate for the limitations of each technology alone. SN - 1465-3362 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31746056/Assessing_the_limit_of_detection_of_Fourier_transform_infrared_spectroscopy_and_immunoassay_strips_for_fentanyl_in_a_real_world_setting_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/dar.13004 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -