Reduced Cd, Pb, and As accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by a combined amendment of calcium sulfate and ferric oxide.Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 Jan; 27(2):1348-1358.ES
A combined amendment (CF) consisting of 90% calcium sulfate (CaSO4) and 10% ferric oxide (Fe2O3) was used to investigate the feasibility, active principles, and possible mechanisms of the immobilization of heavy metals in paddy soil. A soil incubation experiment, two consecutive pot trials, and a field experiment were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and persistence of CF on metal(loid) immobilization. Soil incubation experiment results indicated that the application of CF significantly decreased the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) in soil solution. CF treatments simultaneously reduced the accumulation of Cd, Pb, and As in two consecutive pot trials. The total Cd, Pb, and As concentrations in the rice grains were respectively 0.02, 2.08, and 0.62 mg kg-1 in the control treatment in the second year, which exceeded the safety limits of contaminants in food products in China. However, a high amount of CF amendment (CF-H, 0.3%) effectively decreased Cd, Pb, and As by 75.0%, 75.5%, and 46.8%, respectively. Further, with the CF amendment, the bioavailable Cd and Pb in the soil and the accumulation of Cd, Pb, and As in rice grain in the field experiment were also significantly decreased. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, and As in grains were respectively 0.02, 0.03, and 0.39 mg kg-1 in the control treatment in the field experiment, which decreased to 0.01, 0.01, and 0.22 mg kg-1 with CF addition, suggesting that grains produced in the field could pose less health risk. In conclusion, these results implied that CF was an effective and persistent combined amendment to immobilize heavy metals in soil and thereby can reduce the exposure risk of metal(loid)s associated with rice consumption.