Burden and management of gout in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort.Rheumatol Int. 2020 Jul; 40(7):1029-1035.RI
Gout has significant impact on the quality of life with over-utilisation of health resources. While lowering serum urate (SU) to ≤ 360 µmol/L improves clinical outcomes, this is usually not achieved. We describe the burden of gout and determine predictors of achieving SU target in gout patients in Singapore. This was a cross-sectional study of 282 gout patients from a Singapore hospital rheumatology service. Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, co-existing medical conditions and medications, gout history and severity, SU levels and treatment were obtained. Patients with SU ≤ 360 µmol/L were compared with those > 360 µmol/L to determine factors associated with achieving SU target. Descriptive statistics and multivariate model were used. Severe disease was reported in 50%, with emergency attendances and hospitalisations in 33% and 19% respectively, and unemployment in 32%. Only 22% were at SU target and 67% on urate-lowering therapy (ULT) at recruitment. Hypertension, dyslipidaemia, chronic kidney disease and diabetes were prevalent in 56.7%, 48.2%, 32.3% and 18.8%, respectively. Malays had more comorbidities compared to Chinese participants. In multivariate analysis, ULT prescription and ≥ 2 comorbidities were associated with reaching SU target with odds ratios of 3.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) (1.75-8.71)] and 2.65 [95% CI (1.59-4.43)] respectively, independent of age, tophi, disease duration, body mass index, alcohol and diuretic use. Patients with gout have high disease burden resulting in significant healthcare utilisation. SU control is sub-optimal hence the use of ULT remains key in achieving SU target. Patients with other comorbidities are more likely to reach target than those with only gout as a single diagnosis.