Ferrate Oxidation of Phenolic Compounds in Iodine-Containing Water: Control of Iodinated Aromatic Products.Environ Sci Technol. 2020 02 04; 54(3):1827-1836.ES
Highly toxic iodinated products would form in oxidation and disinfection of iodine-containing water. Variation of iodinated aromatic products in ferrate [Fe(VI)] oxidation of phenolic compounds (phenol, bisphenol A (BPA), and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HBA)) in iodine-containing water was investigated. At pH 5.0, oxidation of phenolic compounds was inhibited by competitive reaction of ferrate with I-, and no formation of iodinated aromatic products was detected. Almost all I- was converted into nontoxic IO3-. At pH 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0, HOI formed in ferrate oxidation of I- and further reacted with phenols, with the formation of iodinated aromatic products. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that both kinds and contents of iodinated aromatic products were raised with the increase in solution pH and the content of I-, and these iodinated aromatic products were further oxidized by ferrate. Ferrate deprived iodine from iodinated aromatic products and transferred highly toxic organic iodine into nontoxic IO3-. An electron-donating substituent (alkyl) increased the reactivity of phenol with ferrate and HOI and facilitated ferrate oxidation of iodinated phenols. An electron-drawing substituent (carboxyl) decreased the reactivity of phenol with ferrate and HOI and hindered the further oxidation of iodinated aromatic products. A kinetic model about the variation of phenol, BPA, and p-HBA in reaction with ferrate in iodine-containing water was developed, and the oxidation profile of phenolic compounds could be satisfactorily predicted at various iodide concentrations.