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Distribution of Chemical Phenotypes (Chemotypes) in European Agricultural Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Cultivars.
J Forensic Sci. 2020 May; 65(3):715-721.JF

Abstract

In Europe, more than 50 approved cultivars of fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) are in agricultural production. Their content of psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is legally restricted to <0.2% (%w/w in the dry, mature inflorescences). Cannabis strains with much higher THC contents are also grown, illegally or under license for drug production. Differentiation between these two groups relies on biochemical quantification of cannabinoid contents in mature floral material. For nonflowering material or tissue devoid of cannabinoids, the genetic prediction of the chemical phenotype (chemotype) provides a suitable method of distinction. Three discrete chemotypes, depending on the ratio of THC and the noneuphoric cannabidiol (CBD), can be distinguished: a "THC-predominant" type, a "CBD-predominant" type, and an intermediate chemotype. We present a systematic genetic prediction of chemotypes of 62 agricultural hemp cultivars grown in Europe. The survey reveals the presence of up to 35% BT allele-carrying individuals (representing either a THC-predominant or an intermediate chemotype) in some cultivars-which is unexpected considering the legal THC limit of 0.2% THC. The fact that 100% of the seized drug-type seeds in this study revealed at least one BT allele, reflects that plant breeding efforts have resulted in a fixation of the BT allele in recreational Cannabis. To guarantee a sincere forensic application based on a genetic chemotype prediction, we recommend not to classify material of unknown origin if the samples size is below nine genetically independent individuals.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Österr. Agentur für Gesundheit und Ernährungssicherheit GmbH (AGES), Spargelfeldstraβe 191, A-1220, Wien, Austria.Österr. Agentur für Gesundheit und Ernährungssicherheit GmbH (AGES), Spargelfeldstraβe 191, A-1220, Wien, Austria.Österr. Agentur für Gesundheit und Ernährungssicherheit GmbH (AGES), Spargelfeldstraβe 191, A-1220, Wien, Austria.Bundeskriminalamt, Wiesbaden, D-65173, Germany.GW Pharmaceuticals plc., Kingsgate House, Newbury Road, Andover, SP10 4DU, U.K.Department of Forensic Science, Landeskriminalamt (LKA) Rheinland-Pfalz, Valenciaplatz 1-7, D-55118, Mainz, Germany.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31770468

Citation

Borroto Fernandez, Eduviges, et al. "Distribution of Chemical Phenotypes (Chemotypes) in European Agricultural Hemp (Cannabis Sativa L.) Cultivars." Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 65, no. 3, 2020, pp. 715-721.
Borroto Fernandez E, Peterseil V, Hackl G, et al. Distribution of Chemical Phenotypes (Chemotypes) in European Agricultural Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Cultivars. J Forensic Sci. 2020;65(3):715-721.
Borroto Fernandez, E., Peterseil, V., Hackl, G., Menges, S., de Meijer, E., & Staginnus, C. (2020). Distribution of Chemical Phenotypes (Chemotypes) in European Agricultural Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Cultivars. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 65(3), 715-721. https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14242
Borroto Fernandez E, et al. Distribution of Chemical Phenotypes (Chemotypes) in European Agricultural Hemp (Cannabis Sativa L.) Cultivars. J Forensic Sci. 2020;65(3):715-721. PubMed PMID: 31770468.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Distribution of Chemical Phenotypes (Chemotypes) in European Agricultural Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Cultivars. AU - Borroto Fernandez,Eduviges, AU - Peterseil,Verena, AU - Hackl,Gerald, AU - Menges,Sonja, AU - de Meijer,Etienne, AU - Staginnus,Christina, Y1 - 2019/11/26/ PY - 2019/09/20/received PY - 2019/10/15/revised PY - 2019/10/31/accepted PY - 2019/11/27/pubmed PY - 2021/1/20/medline PY - 2019/11/27/entrez KW - BT allele KW - CBD KW - Cannabis sativa L. KW - European agricultural hemp cultivar KW - THC KW - THCA synthase KW - cannabidiol KW - chemotype KW - forensic science KW - genetic prediction of chemotypes KW - locus B genotype KW - tetrahydrocannabinol SP - 715 EP - 721 JF - Journal of forensic sciences JO - J Forensic Sci VL - 65 IS - 3 N2 - In Europe, more than 50 approved cultivars of fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) are in agricultural production. Their content of psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is legally restricted to <0.2% (%w/w in the dry, mature inflorescences). Cannabis strains with much higher THC contents are also grown, illegally or under license for drug production. Differentiation between these two groups relies on biochemical quantification of cannabinoid contents in mature floral material. For nonflowering material or tissue devoid of cannabinoids, the genetic prediction of the chemical phenotype (chemotype) provides a suitable method of distinction. Three discrete chemotypes, depending on the ratio of THC and the noneuphoric cannabidiol (CBD), can be distinguished: a "THC-predominant" type, a "CBD-predominant" type, and an intermediate chemotype. We present a systematic genetic prediction of chemotypes of 62 agricultural hemp cultivars grown in Europe. The survey reveals the presence of up to 35% BT allele-carrying individuals (representing either a THC-predominant or an intermediate chemotype) in some cultivars-which is unexpected considering the legal THC limit of 0.2% THC. The fact that 100% of the seized drug-type seeds in this study revealed at least one BT allele, reflects that plant breeding efforts have resulted in a fixation of the BT allele in recreational Cannabis. To guarantee a sincere forensic application based on a genetic chemotype prediction, we recommend not to classify material of unknown origin if the samples size is below nine genetically independent individuals. SN - 1556-4029 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31770468/Distribution_of_Chemical_Phenotypes__Chemotypes__in_European_Agricultural_Hemp__Cannabis_sativa_L___Cultivars_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14242 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -