Protective effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in testicular torsion/detorsion in rats: a possible role of HIF-1α and nitric oxide.Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2020 04; 393(4):603-614.NS
Spermatic cord torsion is a serious and common urologic emergency. It requires early diagnosis for prevention of subfertility and testicular necrosis. Vildagliptin and sitagliptin are anti-diabetic drugs of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors that have a protective role against cerebral ischemic stroke and cardiac ischemia reperfusion. This study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of action of vildagliptin and sitagliptin in a model of testicular ischemia/reperfusion injury by testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D). Testicular T/D was done and vildagliptin and sitagliptin were administered either alone or in combination with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor. Serum total cholesterol and testosterone were measured, while in testicular tissue testosterone, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), nitric oxide level, caspase-3, superoxide dismutase (SOD), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and endothelial NOS (eNOS), and inducible NOS (iNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS) were measured. Histopathology of testicular tissue was done. Vildagliptin and sitagliptin increased serum testosterone, expression, and activity of SOD and testicular TAC. It also reduced total serum cholesterol, testicular MDA, caspase-3, HIF-1α, TNF-α, and expression of eNOS, iNOS, and nNOS. Vildagliptin and sitagliptin also improved histopathological picture of testicular tissue. NOS inhibitor produced similar result to DDP-4 inhibitors; however, its co-administration augmented the effect of vildagliptin and sitagliptin on these parameters. DPP-4 inhibitors, vildagliptin, and sitagliptin were protective against testicular T/D-induced injury mostly by anti-oxidative stress, and anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory actions that was augmented by NOS inhibition with a possible role for HIF-1α expression.