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Educational roles as a continuum of mentoring's role in medicine - a systematic review and thematic analysis of educational studies from 2000 to 2018.
BMC Med Educ. 2019 Nov 27; 19(1):439.BM

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Recent studies have gone to great lengths to differentiate mentoring from teaching, tutoring, role modelling, coaching and supervision in efforts to better understand mentoring processes. This review seeks to evaluate the notion that teaching, tutoring, role modelling, coaching and supervision may in fact all be part of the mentoring process. To evaluate this theory, this review scrutinizes current literature on teaching, tutoring, role modelling, coaching and supervision to evaluate their commonalities with prevailing concepts of novice mentoring.

METHODS

A three staged approach is adopted to evaluate this premise. Stage one involves four systematic reviews on one-to-one learning interactions in teaching, tutoring, role modelling, coaching and supervision within Internal Medicine, published between 1st January 2000 and 31st December 2018. Braun and Clarke's (2006) approach to thematic analysis was used to identify key elements within these approaches and facilitate comparisons between them. Stage two provides an updated view of one-to-one mentoring between a senior physician and a medical student or junior doctor to contextualise the discussion. Stage three infuses mentoring into the findings delineated in stage one.

RESULTS

Seventeen thousand four hundred ninety-nine citations were reviewed, 235 full-text articles were reviewed, and 104 articles were thematically analysed. Four themes were identified - characteristics, processes, nature of relationship, and problems faced in each of the four educational roles.

CONCLUSIONS

Role modelling, teaching and tutoring, coaching and supervision lie within a mentoring spectrum of increasingly structured interactions, assisted by assessments, feedback and personalised support that culminate with a mentoring approach. Still requiring validation, these findings necessitate a reconceptualization of mentoring and changes to mentor training programs and how mentoring is assessed and supported.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Supportive and Palliative Care, National Cancer Centre Singapore, 11 Hospital Drive, Singapore, 169610, Singapore. lalit.radha-krishna@liverpool.ac.uk. Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore. lalit.radha-krishna@liverpool.ac.uk. Palliative Care Institute Liverpool, Academic Palliative & End of Life Care Centre, University of Liverpool, North West Cancer Research Centre, Liverpool, UK. lalit.radha-krishna@liverpool.ac.uk. Centre for Biomedical Ethics, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore. lalit.radha-krishna@liverpool.ac.uk. Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore. lalit.radha-krishna@liverpool.ac.uk.Division of Supportive and Palliative Care, National Cancer Centre Singapore, 11 Hospital Drive, Singapore, 169610, Singapore. Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.Division of Supportive and Palliative Care, National Cancer Centre Singapore, 11 Hospital Drive, Singapore, 169610, Singapore. Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.Division of Supportive and Palliative Care, National Cancer Centre Singapore, 11 Hospital Drive, Singapore, 169610, Singapore. Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.Division of Supportive and Palliative Care, National Cancer Centre Singapore, 11 Hospital Drive, Singapore, 169610, Singapore. Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.Division of Supportive and Palliative Care, National Cancer Centre Singapore, 11 Hospital Drive, Singapore, 169610, Singapore. Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.Division of Supportive and Palliative Care, National Cancer Centre Singapore, 11 Hospital Drive, Singapore, 169610, Singapore. Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.Division of Supportive and Palliative Care, National Cancer Centre Singapore, 11 Hospital Drive, Singapore, 169610, Singapore.Medical Library, National University of Singapore Libraries, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.Gulf Medical University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates.Palliative Care Institute Liverpool, Academic Palliative & End of Life Care Centre, University of Liverpool, North West Cancer Research Centre, Liverpool, UK.Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.Department of Family Medicine, National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31775732

Citation

Radha Krishna, Lalit Kumar, et al. "Educational Roles as a Continuum of Mentoring's Role in Medicine - a Systematic Review and Thematic Analysis of Educational Studies From 2000 to 2018." BMC Medical Education, vol. 19, no. 1, 2019, p. 439.
Radha Krishna LK, Renganathan Y, Tay KT, et al. Educational roles as a continuum of mentoring's role in medicine - a systematic review and thematic analysis of educational studies from 2000 to 2018. BMC Med Educ. 2019;19(1):439.
Radha Krishna, L. K., Renganathan, Y., Tay, K. T., Tan, B. J. X., Chong, J. Y., Ching, A. H., Prakash, K., Quek, N. W. S., Peh, R. H., Chin, A. M. C., Taylor, D. C. M., Mason, S., Kanesvaran, R., & Toh, Y. P. (2019). Educational roles as a continuum of mentoring's role in medicine - a systematic review and thematic analysis of educational studies from 2000 to 2018. BMC Medical Education, 19(1), 439. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-019-1872-8
Radha Krishna LK, et al. Educational Roles as a Continuum of Mentoring's Role in Medicine - a Systematic Review and Thematic Analysis of Educational Studies From 2000 to 2018. BMC Med Educ. 2019 Nov 27;19(1):439. PubMed PMID: 31775732.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Educational roles as a continuum of mentoring's role in medicine - a systematic review and thematic analysis of educational studies from 2000 to 2018. AU - Radha Krishna,Lalit Kumar, AU - Renganathan,Yaazhini, AU - Tay,Kuang Teck, AU - Tan,Benjamin Jia Xing, AU - Chong,Jia Yan, AU - Ching,Ann Hui, AU - Prakash,Kishore, AU - Quek,Nicholas Wei Sheng, AU - Peh,Rachel Huidi, AU - Chin,Annelissa Mien Chew, AU - Taylor,David C M, AU - Mason,Stephen, AU - Kanesvaran,Ravindran, AU - Toh,Ying Pin, Y1 - 2019/11/27/ PY - 2019/09/02/received PY - 2019/11/13/accepted PY - 2019/11/29/entrez PY - 2019/11/30/pubmed PY - 2020/4/10/medline KW - Coaching KW - Medicine KW - Mentoring KW - Postgraduate KW - Role model KW - Supervision KW - Undergraduate SP - 439 EP - 439 JF - BMC medical education JO - BMC Med Educ VL - 19 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Recent studies have gone to great lengths to differentiate mentoring from teaching, tutoring, role modelling, coaching and supervision in efforts to better understand mentoring processes. This review seeks to evaluate the notion that teaching, tutoring, role modelling, coaching and supervision may in fact all be part of the mentoring process. To evaluate this theory, this review scrutinizes current literature on teaching, tutoring, role modelling, coaching and supervision to evaluate their commonalities with prevailing concepts of novice mentoring. METHODS: A three staged approach is adopted to evaluate this premise. Stage one involves four systematic reviews on one-to-one learning interactions in teaching, tutoring, role modelling, coaching and supervision within Internal Medicine, published between 1st January 2000 and 31st December 2018. Braun and Clarke's (2006) approach to thematic analysis was used to identify key elements within these approaches and facilitate comparisons between them. Stage two provides an updated view of one-to-one mentoring between a senior physician and a medical student or junior doctor to contextualise the discussion. Stage three infuses mentoring into the findings delineated in stage one. RESULTS: Seventeen thousand four hundred ninety-nine citations were reviewed, 235 full-text articles were reviewed, and 104 articles were thematically analysed. Four themes were identified - characteristics, processes, nature of relationship, and problems faced in each of the four educational roles. CONCLUSIONS: Role modelling, teaching and tutoring, coaching and supervision lie within a mentoring spectrum of increasingly structured interactions, assisted by assessments, feedback and personalised support that culminate with a mentoring approach. Still requiring validation, these findings necessitate a reconceptualization of mentoring and changes to mentor training programs and how mentoring is assessed and supported. SN - 1472-6920 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31775732/Educational_roles_as_a_continuum_of_mentoring's_role_in_medicine___a_systematic_review_and_thematic_analysis_of_educational_studies_from_2000_to_2018_ L2 - https://bmcmededuc.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12909-019-1872-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -