Application of Solid Dispersion Technique to Improve Solubility and Sustain Release of Emamectin Benzoate.Molecules. 2019 Nov 26; 24(23)M
The solid dispersion technique, which is widely used in the medical field, was applied to prepare a pesticide dosage form of emamectin benzoate (EM). The preparation, physicochemical characterization, aqueous solubility, release dynamics, photolytic degradation, bioactivity, and sustained-release effects of the prepared EM solid dispersions were studied by a solvent method, using polymer materials as the carriers. Water-soluble polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) K30 and water-insoluble polyacrylic resin (PR)III were used as the carriers. The influence of various parameters, such as different EM:PVP-K30 and EM:PRIII feed ratios, solvent and container choices, rotational speed and mixing time effects on pesticide loading, and the entrapment rate of the solid dispersions were investigated. The optimal conditions for the preparation of EM-PVP-K30 solid dispersions required the use of methanol and a feed ratio between 1:1 and 1:50, along with a rotational speed and mixing time of 600 rpm and 60 min, respectively. For the preparation of EM-PRIII solid dispersions, the use of methanol and a feed ratio between 1:4 and 1:50 were required, in addition to the use of a porcelain mortar for carrying out the process. Under optimized conditions, the prepared EM-PVP-K30 solid dispersions resembled potato-like, round, and irregular structures with a jagged surface. In contrast, the EM-PRIII solid dispersions were irregular solids with a microporous surface structure. The results of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), ultraviolet (UV) spectrometry, and infrared (IR) spectrometry showed that the solid dispersions were formed by intermolecular hydrogen bonding. The solid dispersion preparation in PVP-K30 significantly improved the solubility and dissolution rate of EM, particularly the aqueous solubility, which reached a maximum of 37.5-times the EM technical solubility, when the feed ratio of 1:10 was employed to prepare the dispersion. Importantly, the wettable powder of EM-PVP-K30 solid dispersion enhanced the insecticidal activity of EM against the Plutella xylostella larvae. Furthermore, the solid dispersion preparation in PRIII afforded a significant advantage by prolonging the EM technical release in water at a pH below 7.0, especially when the PRIII content in solid dispersions was high. While the amplified toxicity of the wettable powder of EM-PRIII solid dispersions against the P. xylostella larvae showed no significant differences from that of the EM technical, the long-term toxicity under the field condition was much better than that of the commercially available EM 1.5% emulsifiable concentrate. Notably, solid dispersions with both the PVP-K30 and PRIII carriers reduced the effect of UV photolysis.