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The Contribution of Snacking to Overall Diet Intake among an Ethnically and Racially Diverse Population of Boys and Girls.
J Acad Nutr Diet. 2020 02; 120(2):270-279.JA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Children in low-income and minority populations are at risk for poor dietary quality. At least one-third of the calories consumed by children are eaten between meals (ie, snacks). The contribution of snacking to diet quality among children is poorly understood.

OBJECTIVE

The current study examined associations between snacking and children's diet quality along with differences across ethnicity or race, sex, and weight status.

DESIGN

Cross-sectional data came from Phase I of the Family Matters Study, an observational study.

PARTICIPANTS/SETTING

This study included 150 families with children aged 5 to 7 years old from six ethnic or racial groups (n=25 from each: African American, Hispanic, Hmong, Native American, Somali, non-Hispanic white); data were collected in Minneapolis-Saint Paul, MN in 2017-2018.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Total daily energy (kilocalories), overall diet quality using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010), and food group intakes (eg, fruit, vegetables, refined grains, sugar-sweetened beverages [SSB]) were assessed using three 24-hour dietary recalls.

STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED

Conditional fixed effects estimators (within-child variation) were used in regression analyses to characterize the relationship between daily snacking and dietary intake relative to dietary intake at all other daily meal occasions. Mean (±standard deviation) overall dietary intake including all meals and snacks was compared with mean (±standard deviation) intake of meals only.

RESULTS

Among boys, snacking was found to contribute positively to HEI-2010 scores (HEI-2010=57.6, HEI-2010 without snacks=55.0; effect size [ES]=0.28, P=0.03). Snacking was an important source of fruit (ES=0.71) and dairy (ES=0.53), but also contributed to children's consumption of refined grains (ES=0.68) and SSB (ES=0.31). Very few vegetables were consumed as snacks. Furthermore, snacks contributed more to the overall diet quality (HEI-2010) of Native American (ES=0.30) and Somali (ES=0.35) youth as compared with youth from other ethnic or racial backgrounds.

CONCLUSIONS

Findings suggest that snacks have the potential to improve diet quality in children. Future research should examine influences on children's food choices at snack times and barriers to serving more healthful foods as snacks that are faced by ethnically or racially diverse families.

Authors

No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Observational Study
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31780383

Citation

Loth, Katie A., et al. "The Contribution of Snacking to Overall Diet Intake Among an Ethnically and Racially Diverse Population of Boys and Girls." Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 120, no. 2, 2020, pp. 270-279.
Loth KA, Tate A, Trofholz A, et al. The Contribution of Snacking to Overall Diet Intake among an Ethnically and Racially Diverse Population of Boys and Girls. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2020;120(2):270-279.
Loth, K. A., Tate, A., Trofholz, A., Orlet Fisher, J., Neumark-Sztainer, D., & Berge, J. M. (2020). The Contribution of Snacking to Overall Diet Intake among an Ethnically and Racially Diverse Population of Boys and Girls. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 120(2), 270-279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2019.08.173
Loth KA, et al. The Contribution of Snacking to Overall Diet Intake Among an Ethnically and Racially Diverse Population of Boys and Girls. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2020;120(2):270-279. PubMed PMID: 31780383.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The Contribution of Snacking to Overall Diet Intake among an Ethnically and Racially Diverse Population of Boys and Girls. AU - Loth,Katie A, AU - Tate,Allan, AU - Trofholz,Amanda, AU - Orlet Fisher,Jennifer, AU - Neumark-Sztainer,Dianne, AU - Berge,Jerica M, Y1 - 2019/11/25/ PY - 2018/12/14/received PY - 2019/08/20/accepted PY - 2019/11/30/pubmed PY - 2020/10/2/medline PY - 2019/11/30/entrez KW - Dietary intake KW - Healthy Eating Index KW - Quantitative study KW - School-aged children KW - Snacking SP - 270 EP - 279 JF - Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics JO - J Acad Nutr Diet VL - 120 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Children in low-income and minority populations are at risk for poor dietary quality. At least one-third of the calories consumed by children are eaten between meals (ie, snacks). The contribution of snacking to diet quality among children is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The current study examined associations between snacking and children's diet quality along with differences across ethnicity or race, sex, and weight status. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data came from Phase I of the Family Matters Study, an observational study. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: This study included 150 families with children aged 5 to 7 years old from six ethnic or racial groups (n=25 from each: African American, Hispanic, Hmong, Native American, Somali, non-Hispanic white); data were collected in Minneapolis-Saint Paul, MN in 2017-2018. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total daily energy (kilocalories), overall diet quality using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010), and food group intakes (eg, fruit, vegetables, refined grains, sugar-sweetened beverages [SSB]) were assessed using three 24-hour dietary recalls. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Conditional fixed effects estimators (within-child variation) were used in regression analyses to characterize the relationship between daily snacking and dietary intake relative to dietary intake at all other daily meal occasions. Mean (±standard deviation) overall dietary intake including all meals and snacks was compared with mean (±standard deviation) intake of meals only. RESULTS: Among boys, snacking was found to contribute positively to HEI-2010 scores (HEI-2010=57.6, HEI-2010 without snacks=55.0; effect size [ES]=0.28, P=0.03). Snacking was an important source of fruit (ES=0.71) and dairy (ES=0.53), but also contributed to children's consumption of refined grains (ES=0.68) and SSB (ES=0.31). Very few vegetables were consumed as snacks. Furthermore, snacks contributed more to the overall diet quality (HEI-2010) of Native American (ES=0.30) and Somali (ES=0.35) youth as compared with youth from other ethnic or racial backgrounds. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that snacks have the potential to improve diet quality in children. Future research should examine influences on children's food choices at snack times and barriers to serving more healthful foods as snacks that are faced by ethnically or racially diverse families. SN - 2212-2672 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31780383/The_Contribution_of_Snacking_to_Overall_Diet_Intake_among_an_Ethnically_and_Racially_Diverse_Population_of_Boys_and_Girls_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2212-2672(19)31329-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -