Dose-specific Effectiveness of 7- and 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines Against Vaccine-serotype Streptococcus pneumoniae Colonization in Children.Clin Infect Dis. 2020 11 05; 71(8):e289-e300.CI
Reduced-dose pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) schedules are under consideration in countries where children are recommended to receive 3 doses. Whereas PCV-derived protection against vaccine-serotype colonization is responsible for herd effects of vaccination, dose-specific PCV effectiveness against colonization endpoints is not known. We aimed to assess the performance of differing PCV schedules against vaccine-serotype colonization in children.
From 2009-2016, we monitored pneumococcal carriage in southern Israel, where children should receive PCV at ages 2 months, 4 months, and 12 months (2 primary [p] +1 booster [b] schedule). We analyzed nasopharyngeal swabs and vaccination histories from 5928 children aged 0-59 months without symptoms of diseases potentially attributable to pneumococci. Matching individuals on age, sex, ethnicity, visit timing, and recent antibiotic receipt, we measured schedule-specific 7-valent PCV (PCV7) and 13-valent PCV (PCV13) effectiveness against vaccine-serotype colonization in a modified case-control framework. We sampled from the distribution of all possible case-control match assignments for statistical analyses.
Receiving 2 primary-series PCV13 doses conferred 53% (95% confidence interval [CI], 32-67%) protection against PCV13-serotype colonization at ages ≤12 months; 1 primary-series dose was not protective. A 2p+1b PCV13 series conferred 40% (95% CI, 4-67%) and 62% (95% CI, 33-83%) protection against PCV13-serotype colonization at ages 13-24 months and 25-59 months, respectively. Estimates suggested greater PCV13-conferred protection against PCV7-targeted serotypes than the 6 PCV13-only serotypes. As compared to children receiving 2p+1b PCV13 dosing, those receiving 1p+1b and 2p+0b schedules experienced 2.05-fold (95% CI, 1.12-5.00) and 3.33-fold (95% CI, 2.28-4.93) greater odds, respectively, of vaccine-serotype pneumococcal colonization at ages 13-24 months.
Our results demonstrate real-world effectiveness of 2p+1b PCV dosing against vaccine-serotype colonization. Reduced-dose schedules may confer lower protection against vaccine-serotype carriage during and beyond the first year of life.