Development and validation of a volumetric absorptive microsampling- liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method for the analysis of cefepime in human whole blood: Application to pediatric pharmacokinetic study.J Pharm Biomed Anal 2020; 179:113002JP
Cefepime is a fourth-generation cephalosporin antibiotic with an extended spectrum of activity against many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. There is a growing need to develop sensitive, small volume assays, along with less invasive sample collection to facilitate pediatric pharmacokinetic clinical trials and therapeutic drug monitoring. The volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS™) approach provides an accurate and precise collection of a fixed volume of blood (10 μL), reducing or eliminating the volumetric blood hematocrit assay-bias associated with the dried blood spotting technique. We developed a high-performance liquid chromatographic method with tandem mass spectrometry detection for quantification of cefepime. Sample extraction from VAMS™ devices, followed by reversed-phase chromatographic separation and selective detection using tandem mass spectrometry with a 4 min runtime per sample was employed. Standard curves were linear between 0.1-100 μg/mL for cefepime. Intra- and inter-day accuracies were within 95.4-113% and precision (CV) was < 15 % based on a 3-day validation study. Recoveries ranged from 40.8 to 62.1% and the matrix effect was within 89.5-96.7% for cefepime. Cefepime was stable in human whole blood under assay conditions (3 h at room temperature, 24 h in autosampler post-extraction). Cefepime was also stable for at least 1 week (7 days) at 4 °C, 1 month (39 days) at -20 °C and 3 months (91 days) at -78 °C as dried microsamples. This assay provides an efficient quantitation of cefepime and was successfully implemented for the analysis of whole blood microsamples in a pediatric clinical trial.