Invasive fungal wound infection in an otherwise healthy trauma patient (Mucor Trauma).Trauma Case Rep 2019; 24:100251TC
Mucor fungi are found ubiquitously in the environment and rarely cause infections in humans. Mucormycosis is typically seen in immunocompromised patients, but has been increasingly documented in previously healthy trauma patients. Mortality due to these infections can be high due to delayed diagnosis from a subtle clinical presentation and spread of infection by angioinvasion. Early recognition and prompt treatment is critical for survival. We describe a case of invasive mucormycosis in a previously healthy trauma patient treated at a Level 1 trauma center.
A 22-year-old male presented to the hospital after being involved in a motor vehicle accident. He sustained multiple traumatic injuries and developed multi-system organ failure within 48 hours of admission. He developed invasive, soft tissue mucormycosis (Rhizopus sp) at the laparotomy site, requiring multiple surgical debridements and prompt antifungal therapy. The fungus was also cultured from respiratory secretions and likely associated with his abdominal infection. We suspect the patient was predisposed to an invasive fungal infection in the setting of multi-system organ failure and multiple blood transfusions. The patient ultimately did well and continued to improve on follow up in the outpatient setting.
Mucormycosis is a rare infection that has been increasingly documented in trauma patients. Early recognition together with prompt debridement and antifungal therapy is key to successful management. Understanding risk factors for post-traumatic mucormycosis should raise our index of suspicion and prompt early diagnosis and initiation of treatment. Aggressive debridement is a critical component of appropriate management due to the angioinvasive spread of the mucor fungi. This means frequent debridement beyond the demarcation of gangrenous tissue. The management of our patient demonstrates the importance of early recognition of the clinical presentation, prompt initiation of antifungal therapy, and aggressive debridement of the wound.