Serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of human Salmonella enterica in Bangui, Central African Republic, from 2004 to 2013.PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019; 13(12):e0007917PN
Limited epidemiological and antimicrobial resistance data are available on Salmonella enterica from sub-Saharan Africa. We determine the prevalence of resistance to antibiotics in isolates in the Central African Republic (CAR) between 2004 and 2013 and the genetic basis for resistance to third-generation cephalosporin (C3G).
A total of 582 non-duplicate human clinical isolates were collected. The most common serotype was Typhimurium (n = 180, 31% of the isolates). A randomly selected subset of S. Typhimurium isolates were subtyped by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat polymorphism (CRISPOL) typing. All but one invasive isolate tested (66/68, 96%) were associated with sequence type 313. Overall, the rates of resistance were high to traditional first-line drugs (18-40%) but low to many other antimicrobials, including fluoroquinolones (one resistant isolate) and C3G (only one ESBL-producing isolate). The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolate and three additional ESBL isolates from West Africa were studied by whole genome sequencing. The blaCTX-M-15 gene and the majority of antimicrobial resistance genes found in the ESBL isolate were present in a large conjugative IncHI2 plasmid highly similar (> 99% nucleotide identity) to ESBL-carrying plasmids found in Kenya (S. Typhimurium ST313) and also in West Africa (serotypes Grumpensis, Havana, Telelkebir and Typhimurium).
Although the prevalence of ESBL-producing Salmonella isolates was low in CAR, we found that a single IncHI2 plasmid-carrying blaCTX-M-15 was widespread among Salmonella serotypes from sub-Saharan Africa, which is of concern.