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Effects of mercuric chloride on spatial memory deficit-induced by beta-amyloid and evaluation of mitochondrial function markers in the hippocampus of rats.

Abstract

Mercury is a highly poisonous heavy metal abundantly found in the environment in its inorganic form. Although evidence have been provided about the possible role of inorganic mercury in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), its effect on cognitive and mitochondrial functions have not yet been completely understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of the chronic exposure to mercuric chloride (0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mg kg-1 per day for 3 weeks) through drinking water (by gavage) on spatial learning and memory and hippocampal mitochondrial function in beta-amyloid treated rats (1 μg per μL per side, intrahippocampally). The acquisition and retention of spatial memory were evaluated by the Morris water maze (MWM) test. Several parameters of hippocampal mitochondrial function were also measured. The results indicated that mercury impaired spatial learning and memory as well as aggravated Aβ-induced memory impairments in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, mercury exposure resulted in a significant increase in ROS generation, MMP collapse, mitochondrial swelling, glutathione oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and outer membrane damage. In addition, a reduced cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) activity and elevated ADP/ATP ratio in the rats' hippocampus was also observed. The findings of the current study revealed that chronic mercury exposure led to mitochondrial dysfunction, which resulted in spatial memory impairments. The results also showed that mercury can exacerbate the toxic effects of Aβ on spatial memory and hippocampal mitochondrial function.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. msharifzadeh@tums.ac.ir.Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. msharifzadeh@tums.ac.ir and Toxicology and Diseases Group, The Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (TIPS), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. msharifzadeh@tums.ac.ir.Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. msharifzadeh@tums.ac.ir.Rehabilitation Research Center, Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. jpourahmadjaktaji@utoronto.ca.Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. msharifzadeh@tums.ac.ir.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31793599

Citation

Behzadfar, Ladan, et al. "Effects of Mercuric Chloride On Spatial Memory Deficit-induced By Beta-amyloid and Evaluation of Mitochondrial Function Markers in the Hippocampus of Rats." Metallomics : Integrated Biometal Science, 2019.
Behzadfar L, Hassani S, Feizpour H, et al. Effects of mercuric chloride on spatial memory deficit-induced by beta-amyloid and evaluation of mitochondrial function markers in the hippocampus of rats. Metallomics. 2019.
Behzadfar, L., Hassani, S., Feizpour, H., Abbasian, N., Salek Maghsoudi, A., Taghizadeh, G., ... Sharifzadeh, M. (2019). Effects of mercuric chloride on spatial memory deficit-induced by beta-amyloid and evaluation of mitochondrial function markers in the hippocampus of rats. Metallomics : Integrated Biometal Science, doi:10.1039/c9mt00161a.
Behzadfar L, et al. Effects of Mercuric Chloride On Spatial Memory Deficit-induced By Beta-amyloid and Evaluation of Mitochondrial Function Markers in the Hippocampus of Rats. Metallomics. 2019 Dec 3; PubMed PMID: 31793599.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of mercuric chloride on spatial memory deficit-induced by beta-amyloid and evaluation of mitochondrial function markers in the hippocampus of rats. AU - Behzadfar,Ladan, AU - Hassani,Shokoufeh, AU - Feizpour,Hossein, AU - Abbasian,Nakisa, AU - Salek Maghsoudi,Armin, AU - Taghizadeh,Ghorban, AU - Pourahmad,Jalal, AU - Sharifzadeh,Mohammad, Y1 - 2019/12/03/ PY - 2019/12/4/pubmed PY - 2019/12/4/medline PY - 2019/12/4/entrez JF - Metallomics : integrated biometal science JO - Metallomics N2 - Mercury is a highly poisonous heavy metal abundantly found in the environment in its inorganic form. Although evidence have been provided about the possible role of inorganic mercury in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), its effect on cognitive and mitochondrial functions have not yet been completely understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of the chronic exposure to mercuric chloride (0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mg kg-1 per day for 3 weeks) through drinking water (by gavage) on spatial learning and memory and hippocampal mitochondrial function in beta-amyloid treated rats (1 μg per μL per side, intrahippocampally). The acquisition and retention of spatial memory were evaluated by the Morris water maze (MWM) test. Several parameters of hippocampal mitochondrial function were also measured. The results indicated that mercury impaired spatial learning and memory as well as aggravated Aβ-induced memory impairments in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, mercury exposure resulted in a significant increase in ROS generation, MMP collapse, mitochondrial swelling, glutathione oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and outer membrane damage. In addition, a reduced cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) activity and elevated ADP/ATP ratio in the rats' hippocampus was also observed. The findings of the current study revealed that chronic mercury exposure led to mitochondrial dysfunction, which resulted in spatial memory impairments. The results also showed that mercury can exacerbate the toxic effects of Aβ on spatial memory and hippocampal mitochondrial function. SN - 1756-591X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31793599/Effects_of_mercuric_chloride_on_spatial_memory_deficit-induced_by_beta-amyloid_and_evaluation_of_mitochondrial_function_markers_in_the_hippocampus_of_rats L2 - https://doi.org/10.1039/c9mt00161a DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -