The Impact of Opium Abuse on Lipid Profile in Patients with Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 11 29; 16(23)IJ
There is an increasing prevalence of diabetes worldwide and substance abuse has been observed as a problem among some people with diabetes. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand the association between unhealthy drug use including the abuse of opium and clinical outcomes including its impact on lipid profile in patients with diabetes as the presence of these conditions can increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
This was a systematic review and meta-analysis which evaluated the impact of opium abuse on lipid profile in patients with diabetes.
This systematic review was conducted in line with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Three databases (Embase, PubMed, and PsycINFO) plus Google Scholar were searched for relevant articles from database inception to 18 July 2019 based on the Population, Intervention, Comparator, and Outcomes (PICO) framework. The studies included were based on a set of inclusion and exclusion criteria including patients with diabetes who abused opium. Articles were evaluated for risk of bias and the meta-analysis was conducted using Revman.
Six articles that met the criteria were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The type of substance abused was opium in all the studies. The results of the meta-analysis showed that opium abuse significantly (P = 0.01) lowered total cholesterol compared to control with a mean difference of -0.17 (95% CI, -0.29, -0.04) in patients with diabetes. With respect to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and body mass index, the differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05) between those who abused opium compared with the control. Nutritional deficiencies, weight loss and lipid dysregulation due to liver dysfunction which are found in people who abuse substances may explain the findings of the current review with respect to lipid profile in patients with diabetes who abuse opium compared with the control.
The findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis have shown that opium abuse significantly decreased total cholesterol (P < 0.05) in patients with diabetes. However, the effect of opium abuse on HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, body mass index (BMI) and LDL cholesterol in these patients were not statistically significant (P > 0.05) compared with the control. This result has public health significance in terms of ensuring the promotion of adequate nutritional intake in patients with diabetes who abuse opium.