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Evaluation of Physiological Parameters and Effectiveness of an Immobilization Protocol Using Etorphine, Azaperone, and Butorphanol in Free-Ranging Warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus).
Front Vet Sci 2019; 6:402FV

Abstract

Twenty free-ranging warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, were immobilized with a combination of etorphine (0.039 ± 0.005 mg/kg) and azaperone (0.44 ± 0.06 mg/kg) administered intramuscularly by dart. Butorphanol (1 mg per mg etorphine) was administered intravenously at t = 5 min. A standardized scoring system was used to record induction, immobilization and recovery characteristics. Physiological parameters were recorded at 5 min intervals and an arterial sample collected for blood gas analyses every 15 min. At 45 min after butorphanol administration, immobilization was partially reversed by administering naltrexone (40x etorphine dose in mg) intravenously. Overall, induction quality was good, with the mean time to safe handling 5.9 ± 1.4 min. The majority of immobilization scores (54%) over the entire monitoring period (40 min) were at level 3, consistent with a light plane in which palpebral and laryngeal reflexes were still present but the animal could be safely handled. Overall mean heart rate was 94.7 ± 15.3 beats per min, mean respiratory rate was 14.7 ± 9.8 breaths per min, and the mean rectal temperature was 38.5 ± 1.0°C. Significant hypoxia (overall mean oxygen arterial partial pressure 38.8 ± 8.4 mmHg), hypercapnia (mean carbon dioxide arterial partial pressure 63.3 ± 7.8 mmHg), and acidosis (mean pH 7.28 ± 0.04) were observed in immobilized warthogs. Following antagonist administration, warthogs were standing within 1.0 ± 0.4 min, with the majority of recoveries scored as excellent. The drug combination proved to be effective in the immobilization of free-ranging warthogs with rapid induction and recovery, but with significant cardio-respiratory changes. Therefore, this drug combination may be useful when rapid immobilization and recovery are indicated, but should be used cautiously in compromised warthogs.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Wildlife Health Sciences, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Washington, DC, United States.Veterinary Wildlife Services, South African National Parks, Kruger National Park, Skukuza, South Africa.Veterinary Wildlife Services, South African National Parks, Kruger National Park, Skukuza, South Africa.Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Department of Science and Technology-National Research Foundation Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Medical Research Council Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.Veterinary Wildlife Services, South African National Parks, Kruger National Park, Skukuza, South Africa.Veterinary Wildlife Services, South African National Parks, Kruger National Park, Skukuza, South Africa.Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University, North Grafton, MA, United States.Department of Clinical Sciences and Mycobacteria Research Laboratories, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CL, United States.Department of Clinical Sciences and Mycobacteria Research Laboratories, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CL, United States.Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Department of Science and Technology-National Research Foundation Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Medical Research Council Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31799283

Citation

Neiffer, Donald, et al. "Evaluation of Physiological Parameters and Effectiveness of an Immobilization Protocol Using Etorphine, Azaperone, and Butorphanol in Free-Ranging Warthogs (Phacochoerus Africanus)." Frontiers in Veterinary Science, vol. 6, 2019, p. 402.
Neiffer D, Buss P, Hewlett J, et al. Evaluation of Physiological Parameters and Effectiveness of an Immobilization Protocol Using Etorphine, Azaperone, and Butorphanol in Free-Ranging Warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus). Front Vet Sci. 2019;6:402.
Neiffer, D., Buss, P., Hewlett, J., Hausler, G., Rossouw, L., Manamela, T., ... Miller, M. (2019). Evaluation of Physiological Parameters and Effectiveness of an Immobilization Protocol Using Etorphine, Azaperone, and Butorphanol in Free-Ranging Warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus). Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 6, p. 402. doi:10.3389/fvets.2019.00402.
Neiffer D, et al. Evaluation of Physiological Parameters and Effectiveness of an Immobilization Protocol Using Etorphine, Azaperone, and Butorphanol in Free-Ranging Warthogs (Phacochoerus Africanus). Front Vet Sci. 2019;6:402. PubMed PMID: 31799283.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Evaluation of Physiological Parameters and Effectiveness of an Immobilization Protocol Using Etorphine, Azaperone, and Butorphanol in Free-Ranging Warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus). AU - Neiffer,Donald, AU - Buss,Peter, AU - Hewlett,Jennie, AU - Hausler,Guy, AU - Rossouw,Leana, AU - Manamela,Tebogo, AU - Grenus,Brittany, AU - Thulson,Emily, AU - Olea-Popelka,Francisco, AU - Miller,Michele, Y1 - 2019/11/14/ PY - 2019/07/29/received PY - 2019/10/28/accepted PY - 2019/12/5/entrez PY - 2019/12/5/pubmed PY - 2019/12/5/medline KW - Phacochoerus africanus KW - azaperone KW - butorphanol KW - etorphine KW - immobilization KW - warthog SP - 402 EP - 402 JF - Frontiers in veterinary science JO - Front Vet Sci VL - 6 N2 - Twenty free-ranging warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, were immobilized with a combination of etorphine (0.039 ± 0.005 mg/kg) and azaperone (0.44 ± 0.06 mg/kg) administered intramuscularly by dart. Butorphanol (1 mg per mg etorphine) was administered intravenously at t = 5 min. A standardized scoring system was used to record induction, immobilization and recovery characteristics. Physiological parameters were recorded at 5 min intervals and an arterial sample collected for blood gas analyses every 15 min. At 45 min after butorphanol administration, immobilization was partially reversed by administering naltrexone (40x etorphine dose in mg) intravenously. Overall, induction quality was good, with the mean time to safe handling 5.9 ± 1.4 min. The majority of immobilization scores (54%) over the entire monitoring period (40 min) were at level 3, consistent with a light plane in which palpebral and laryngeal reflexes were still present but the animal could be safely handled. Overall mean heart rate was 94.7 ± 15.3 beats per min, mean respiratory rate was 14.7 ± 9.8 breaths per min, and the mean rectal temperature was 38.5 ± 1.0°C. Significant hypoxia (overall mean oxygen arterial partial pressure 38.8 ± 8.4 mmHg), hypercapnia (mean carbon dioxide arterial partial pressure 63.3 ± 7.8 mmHg), and acidosis (mean pH 7.28 ± 0.04) were observed in immobilized warthogs. Following antagonist administration, warthogs were standing within 1.0 ± 0.4 min, with the majority of recoveries scored as excellent. The drug combination proved to be effective in the immobilization of free-ranging warthogs with rapid induction and recovery, but with significant cardio-respiratory changes. Therefore, this drug combination may be useful when rapid immobilization and recovery are indicated, but should be used cautiously in compromised warthogs. SN - 2297-1769 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31799283/Evaluation_of_Physiological_Parameters_and_Effectiveness_of_an_Immobilization_Protocol_Using_Etorphine,_Azaperone,_and_Butorphanol_in_Free-Ranging_Warthogs_(Phacochoerus_africanus) L2 - https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00402 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -