Pro-renin receptor suppresses mitochondrial biogenesis and function via AMPK/SIRT-1/ PGC-1α pathway in diabetic kidney.PLoS One. 2019; 14(12):e0225728.Plos
Abnormal mitochondrial biogenesis and function has been linked to multiple diseases including diabetes. Recently, we demonstrated the role of renal (Pro)renin receptor (PRR) in the dysregulation of mitochondria. We hypothesized that PRR contributes to the reduction of mitochondrial biogenesis and function in diabetic kidney via PGC-1α/AMPK/SIRT-1 signaling pathway. In vivo and in vitro studies were conducted in C57BL/6 mouse and mouse renal mesangial cells (mRMCs). Control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were injected with scramble or PRR shRNA and followed for a period of eight weeks. PRR mRNA and protein expression increased by 44% and 39% respectively (P<0.05) in kidneys of diabetic mice, and in mRMCs exposed to high glucose by 43 and 61% respectively compared to their respective controls. These results were accompanied by reduced mRNA and protein expressions of PGC-1α (67% and 75%), nuclear respiratory factors (NRF-1, 48% and 53%), mitochondrial transcriptional factor A (mtTFA, 56% and 40%), mitochondrial DNA copy number by 75% (all, P<0.05), and ATP production by 54%, respectively in diabetic kidneys and in mRMCs exposed to high glucose. Compared to non-diabetic control mice, PRR knockdown in diabetic mice and in mRMCs, not only attenuated the PRR mRNA and protein expression but also normalized mRNA and protein expressions of PGC-1α, NRF-1, mtTFA, mitochondrial DNA copy number, and ATP production. Treatment with AMPK inhibitor, Compound C, or SIRT-1 inhibitor, EX-527, alone, or combined with PRR siRNA caused marked reduction of mRNA expression of PGC-1α, NRF-1 and mtTFA, and ATP production in mRMCs exposed to high glucose. In conclusion, our study demonstrated the contribution of the PRR to the reduction of mitochondrial biogenesis and function in diabetic kidney disease via decreasing AMPK/SIRT-1/ PGC-1α signaling pathway.