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Interdependence of balance mechanisms during bipedal locomotion.
PLoS One 2019; 14(12):e0225902Plos

Abstract

Our main interest is to identify how humans maintain upright while walking. Balance during standing and walking is different, primarily due to a gait cycle which the nervous system must contend with a variety of body configurations and frequent perturbations (i.e., heel-strike). We have identified three mechanisms that healthy young adults use to respond to a visually perceived fall to the side. The lateral ankle mechanism and the foot placement mechanism are used to shift the center of pressure in the direction of the perceived fall, and the center of mass away from the perceived fall. The push-off mechanism, a systematic change in ankle plantarflexion angle in the trailing leg, results in fine adjustments to medial-lateral balance near the end of double stance. The focus here is to understand how the three basic balance mechanisms are coordinated to produce an overall balance response. The results indicate that lateral ankle and foot placement mechanisms are inversely related. Larger lateral ankle responses lead to smaller foot placement changes. Correlations involving the push-off mechanism, while significant, were weak. However, the consistency of the correlations across stimulus conditions suggest the push-off mechanism has the role of small adjustments to medial-lateral movement near the end of the balance response. This verifies that a fundamental feature of human bipedal gait is a highly flexible balance system that recruits and coordinates multiple mechanisms to maintain upright balance during walking to accommodate extreme changes in body configuration and frequent perturbations.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Kinesiology and Applied Physiology, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States of America. Department of Kinesiology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States of America.Kinesiology and Applied Physiology, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States of America. Department of Kinesiology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States of America.Kinesiology and Applied Physiology, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States of America.Department of Physical Therapy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States of America. Department of Kinesiology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States of America. Department of Physical Therapy, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States of America.Kinesiology and Applied Physiology, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States of America.Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States of America.Kinesiology and Applied Physiology, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States of America. Department of Kinesiology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States of America.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31800620

Citation

Fettrow, Tyler, et al. "Interdependence of Balance Mechanisms During Bipedal Locomotion." PloS One, vol. 14, no. 12, 2019, pp. e0225902.
Fettrow T, Reimann H, Grenet D, et al. Interdependence of balance mechanisms during bipedal locomotion. PLoS ONE. 2019;14(12):e0225902.
Fettrow, T., Reimann, H., Grenet, D., Thompson, E., Crenshaw, J., Higginson, J., & Jeka, J. (2019). Interdependence of balance mechanisms during bipedal locomotion. PloS One, 14(12), pp. e0225902. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0225902.
Fettrow T, et al. Interdependence of Balance Mechanisms During Bipedal Locomotion. PLoS ONE. 2019;14(12):e0225902. PubMed PMID: 31800620.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Interdependence of balance mechanisms during bipedal locomotion. AU - Fettrow,Tyler, AU - Reimann,Hendrik, AU - Grenet,David, AU - Thompson,Elizabeth, AU - Crenshaw,Jeremy, AU - Higginson,Jill, AU - Jeka,John, Y1 - 2019/12/04/ PY - 2019/06/05/received PY - 2019/11/14/accepted PY - 2019/12/5/entrez PY - 2019/12/5/pubmed PY - 2019/12/5/medline SP - e0225902 EP - e0225902 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS ONE VL - 14 IS - 12 N2 - Our main interest is to identify how humans maintain upright while walking. Balance during standing and walking is different, primarily due to a gait cycle which the nervous system must contend with a variety of body configurations and frequent perturbations (i.e., heel-strike). We have identified three mechanisms that healthy young adults use to respond to a visually perceived fall to the side. The lateral ankle mechanism and the foot placement mechanism are used to shift the center of pressure in the direction of the perceived fall, and the center of mass away from the perceived fall. The push-off mechanism, a systematic change in ankle plantarflexion angle in the trailing leg, results in fine adjustments to medial-lateral balance near the end of double stance. The focus here is to understand how the three basic balance mechanisms are coordinated to produce an overall balance response. The results indicate that lateral ankle and foot placement mechanisms are inversely related. Larger lateral ankle responses lead to smaller foot placement changes. Correlations involving the push-off mechanism, while significant, were weak. However, the consistency of the correlations across stimulus conditions suggest the push-off mechanism has the role of small adjustments to medial-lateral movement near the end of the balance response. This verifies that a fundamental feature of human bipedal gait is a highly flexible balance system that recruits and coordinates multiple mechanisms to maintain upright balance during walking to accommodate extreme changes in body configuration and frequent perturbations. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31800620/Interdependence_of_balance_mechanisms_during_bipedal_locomotion L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225902 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -