Evaluation of prolonged 'Permissive Hypotension': results from a 6-hour hemorrhage protocol in swine.Trauma Surg Acute Care Open 2019; 4(1):e000369TS
Tactical Combat Casualty Care guidelines for hemorrhage recommend resuscitation to systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 85±5 mm Hg during prehospital care. Success depends on transport to definitive care within the 'golden hour'. As future conflicts may demand longer prehospital/transport times, we sought to determine safety of prolonged permissive hypotension (PH).
Adult male swine were randomized into three experimental groups. Non-shock (NS)/normotensive underwent anesthesia only. NS/PH was bled to SBP of 85±5 mm Hg for 6 hours of prolonged field care (PFC) with SBP maintained via crystalloid, then recovered. Experimental group underwent controlled hemorrhage to mean arterial pressure 30 mm Hg until decompensation (Decomp/PH), followed by 6 hours of PFC. Hemorrhaged animals were then resuscitated with whole blood and observed for 24 hours. Physiologic variables, blood, tissue samples, and neurologic scores were collected.
Survival of all groups was 100%. Fluid volumes to maintain targeted SBP in PFC were significantly higher in the hemorrhage group than sham groups. After 24 hours' recovery, no significant differences were observed in neurologic scores or cerebrospinal fluid markers of brain injury. No significant changes in organ function related to treatment were observed during PFC through recovery, as assessed by serum chemistry and histological analysis.
After 6 hours, a prolonged PH strategy showed no detrimental effect on survival or neurologic outcome despite the increased ischemic burden of hemorrhage. Significant fluid volume was required to maintain SBP-a potential logistic burden for prehospital care. Further work to define maximum allowable time of PH is needed.
Translational animal model.
Level of evidence