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Oral health and Candida carriage in socioeconomically disadvantaged US pregnant women.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019 Dec 05; 19(1):480.BP

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Despite the well-documented associations between poor maternal oral health and increased risk for adverse birth outcomes and dental caries in children after birth, prenatal oral health care is under-utilized, especially among the underserved population. In addition, oral Candida has recently been suggested as a potential culprit for children's dental caries, with evident maternal contributions. Therefore, this study aimed to obtain epidemiological data on the oral health and oral Candida carriage in a cohort of underserved US pregnant women, and reveal factors associated with their oral Candida carriage.

METHODS

Demographic-medical-oral hygiene practice data were collected. Comprehensive oral examination was conducted. Caries status and plaque index were recorded. Oral samples (saliva, plaque and swab) were processed to identify Candida species and Streptococcus mutans by culturing-dependent and -independent methods. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with oral Candida carriage and caries severity.

RESULTS

Eighty-two socioeconomically disadvantaged women (48 pregnant and 34 non-pregnant) were enrolled. More pregnant women (79.1%) had > = 1 untreated decayed tooth when compared to their non-pregnant counterparts (47.1%) (p = 0.01). The average number of decayed teeth in pregnant and non-pregnant women was 3.9 and 3.1 (p > 0.05). Caries severity was positively associated with race (African American vs. white), plaque index and salivary Candida albicans level. C. albicans was the most predominant/abundant Candida strain, with cheek and tonsil as the most common colonized sites. The detection of C. albicans was 56%/56% in saliva and 40%/47% in plaque of the pregnant and non-pregnant groups, respectively. Study women's oral Candida carriage is positively associated with hypertension [p = 0.03, odds ratio = 14.47(1.28, 163.51)], decayed teeth number [p = 0.04, odds ratio = 1.31 (1.01,1.69)] and salivary S. mutans level [p = 0.03, odds ratio = 4.80 (1.18-19.43)].

CONCLUSIONS

Socioeconomically disadvantaged US women are in need of improved prenatal oral health, a large proportion of them have untreated decayed teeth and high carriage of oral Candida. Due to the observed significant association between the decayed teeth number and oral Candida carriage, providing oral health care during pregnancy (including limiting decayed teeth) will not only improve women's oral health, but also present as a promising approach to reduce oral Candida carriage in women.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Eastman Institute for Oral Health, University of Rochester Medical Center, 625 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, USA. jin_xiao@urmc.rochester.edu.Department of Family Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, USA.Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, USA.Eastman Institute for Oral Health, University of Rochester Medical Center, 625 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, USA.Eastman Institute for Oral Health, University of Rochester Medical Center, 625 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, USA. Department of Forensic Medicine, North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, China.Department of Family Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, USA.Eastman Institute for Oral Health, University of Rochester Medical Center, 625 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, USA.Eastman Institute for Oral Health, University of Rochester Medical Center, 625 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, USA. College of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing, China.Department of Family Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, USA.Eastman Institute for Oral Health, University of Rochester Medical Center, 625 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, USA.Eastman Institute for Oral Health, University of Rochester Medical Center, 625 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31805881

Citation

Xiao, Jin, et al. "Oral Health and Candida Carriage in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged US Pregnant Women." BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol. 19, no. 1, 2019, p. 480.
Xiao J, Fogarty C, Wu TT, et al. Oral health and Candida carriage in socioeconomically disadvantaged US pregnant women. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019;19(1):480.
Xiao, J., Fogarty, C., Wu, T. T., Alkhers, N., Zeng, Y., Thomas, M., Youssef, M., Wang, L., Cowen, L., Abdelsalam, H., & Nikitkova, A. (2019). Oral health and Candida carriage in socioeconomically disadvantaged US pregnant women. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 19(1), 480. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-019-2618-7
Xiao J, et al. Oral Health and Candida Carriage in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged US Pregnant Women. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019 Dec 5;19(1):480. PubMed PMID: 31805881.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Oral health and Candida carriage in socioeconomically disadvantaged US pregnant women. AU - Xiao,Jin, AU - Fogarty,Colleen, AU - Wu,Tong Tong, AU - Alkhers,Naemah, AU - Zeng,Yan, AU - Thomas,Marie, AU - Youssef,Moustafa, AU - Wang,Lin, AU - Cowen,Lauren, AU - Abdelsalam,Hossam, AU - Nikitkova,Anna, Y1 - 2019/12/05/ PY - 2019/02/08/received PY - 2019/11/21/accepted PY - 2019/12/7/entrez PY - 2019/12/7/pubmed PY - 2020/5/2/medline KW - Candida KW - Dental caries KW - Oral health KW - Pregnancy KW - Yeast infection SP - 480 EP - 480 JF - BMC pregnancy and childbirth JO - BMC Pregnancy Childbirth VL - 19 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Despite the well-documented associations between poor maternal oral health and increased risk for adverse birth outcomes and dental caries in children after birth, prenatal oral health care is under-utilized, especially among the underserved population. In addition, oral Candida has recently been suggested as a potential culprit for children's dental caries, with evident maternal contributions. Therefore, this study aimed to obtain epidemiological data on the oral health and oral Candida carriage in a cohort of underserved US pregnant women, and reveal factors associated with their oral Candida carriage. METHODS: Demographic-medical-oral hygiene practice data were collected. Comprehensive oral examination was conducted. Caries status and plaque index were recorded. Oral samples (saliva, plaque and swab) were processed to identify Candida species and Streptococcus mutans by culturing-dependent and -independent methods. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with oral Candida carriage and caries severity. RESULTS: Eighty-two socioeconomically disadvantaged women (48 pregnant and 34 non-pregnant) were enrolled. More pregnant women (79.1%) had > = 1 untreated decayed tooth when compared to their non-pregnant counterparts (47.1%) (p = 0.01). The average number of decayed teeth in pregnant and non-pregnant women was 3.9 and 3.1 (p > 0.05). Caries severity was positively associated with race (African American vs. white), plaque index and salivary Candida albicans level. C. albicans was the most predominant/abundant Candida strain, with cheek and tonsil as the most common colonized sites. The detection of C. albicans was 56%/56% in saliva and 40%/47% in plaque of the pregnant and non-pregnant groups, respectively. Study women's oral Candida carriage is positively associated with hypertension [p = 0.03, odds ratio = 14.47(1.28, 163.51)], decayed teeth number [p = 0.04, odds ratio = 1.31 (1.01,1.69)] and salivary S. mutans level [p = 0.03, odds ratio = 4.80 (1.18-19.43)]. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomically disadvantaged US women are in need of improved prenatal oral health, a large proportion of them have untreated decayed teeth and high carriage of oral Candida. Due to the observed significant association between the decayed teeth number and oral Candida carriage, providing oral health care during pregnancy (including limiting decayed teeth) will not only improve women's oral health, but also present as a promising approach to reduce oral Candida carriage in women. SN - 1471-2393 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31805881/Oral_health_and_Candida_carriage_in_socioeconomically_disadvantaged_US_pregnant_women_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -