Advances in nanomedicine for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis.Int J Nanomedicine 2019; 14:8521-8542IJ
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a complex disease characterized by inflammation and ankylosis primarily at the cartilage-bone interface. The disease is more common in young males and risk factors include both genetic and environmental. While the pathogenesis of AS is not completely understood, it is thought to be an immune-mediated disease involving inflammatory cellular infiltrates, and human leukocyte antigen-B27. Currently, there is no specific diagnostic technique available for this disease; therefore conventional diagnostic approaches such as clinical symptoms, laboratory tests and imaging techniques are used. There are various review papers that have been published on conventional treatment approaches, and in this review work, we focus on the more promising nanomedicine-based treatment modalities to move this field forward.