Use of Medications with Anticholinergic Properties and the Long-Term Risk of Hospitalization for Falls and Fractures in the EPIC-Norfolk Longitudinal Cohort Study.Drugs Aging. 2020 02; 37(2):105-114.DA
The consumption of medications with anticholinergic activity has been suggested to result in the adverse effects of mental confusion, visual disturbance, and muscle weakness, which may lead to falls. Existing published evidence linking anticholinergic drugs with falls, however, remains weak. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between anticholinergic cognitive burden (ACB) and the long-term risk of hospitalization with falls and fractures in a large population study. The dataset comprised information from 25,639 men and women (aged 40-79 years) recruited from 1993 to 1997 from Norfolk, United Kingdom into the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study. The time to first hospital admission with a fall with or without fracture was obtained from the National Health Service hospital information system. Cox-proportional hazards analyses were conducted to adjust for confounders and competing risks. The fall hospitalization rate was 5.8% over a median follow-up of ~ 19.4 years. The unadjusted incidence rate ratio for the use of any drugs with anticholinergic properties was 1.79 (95% CI 1.66-1.93). The hazard ratios (95% CI) for ACB scores of 1, 2-3, and ≥ 4 compared with ACB = 0 for fall hospitalization were 1.20 (1.09-1.33), 1.42 (1.25-1.60), and 1.39 (1.21-1.60) after adjustment for age, gender, medical conditions, physical activity, and blood pressure. Medications with anticholinergic activity are associated with an increased risk of subsequent hospitalization with a fall over a 19-year follow-up period. The biological mechanisms underlying the long-term risk of hospitalization with a fall or fracture following baseline ACB exposure remains unclear and requires further evaluation.