Oxidative removal of benzotriazole using peroxymonosulfate/ozone/ultrasound: Synergy, optimization, degradation intermediates and utilizing for real wastewater.Chemosphere. 2020 Apr; 244:125326.C
This study investigated the degradation efficiency of BTA using combination of ultrasound (US), peroxymonosulfate (PMS), and ozone. The effects of different operational parameters were investigated to optimize the process performance. The results showed that the highest removal efficiency was reached at neutral pH, ozone = 6.8 mg/L, PMS = 1.5 mM and US power = 200 W. Under these conditions, 40 mg/L of BTA was completely degraded within 60 min leading to the almost 85% of chemical oxygen demand removal, 75% of total organic carbon removal and 73.3% of organic nitrogen removal. Based on the scavenging tests, it was found that hydroxyl radical was the main oxidizing agent in the oxidation of BTA by PMS/ozone/US process. The inhibitive effect of anions on BTA removal was under this order NO2- > HCO3- > Cl- > NO3- > SO42-. Degradation intermediates of BTA were identified and oxidation pathway was proposed. Finally, real samples of saline water, petrochemical wastewater and secondary effluent matrices were investigated for the performance of PMS/ozone/US process and it was found that 54%, 72.3% and 94.6% BTA removal efficiency were reached, respectively. PMS/ozone/US process was compared to US/peroxone (ozone + H2O2) and the results showed importance of US irradiation in both systems. Accordingly, PMS/ozone/US process could be considered as an efficient and promising process for BTA degradation in various wastewaters.