Five-year Pan-European, longitudinal surveillance of Clostridium difficile ribotype prevalence and antimicrobial resistance: the extended ClosER study.Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2020 Jan; 39(1):169-177.EJ
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been primarily treated with metronidazole or vancomycin. High recurrence rates, the emergence of epidemic PCR ribotypes (RTs) and the introduction of fidaxomicin in Europe in 2011 necessitate surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and CDI epidemiology. The ClosER study monitored antimicrobial susceptibility and geographical distribution of C. difficile RTs pre- and post-fidaxomicin introduction. From 2011 to 2016, 28 European countries submitted isolates or faecal samples for determination of PCR ribotype, toxin status and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of metronidazole, vancomycin, rifampicin, fidaxomicin, moxifloxacin, clindamycin, imipenem, chloramphenicol and tigecycline. RT diversity scores for each country were calculated and mean MIC results used to generate cumulative resistant scores (CRSs) for each isolate and country. From 40 sites, 3499 isolates were analysed, of which 95% (3338/3499) were toxin positive. The most common of the 264 RTs isolated was RT027 (mean prevalence 11.4%); however, RT prevalence varied greatly between countries and between years. The fidaxomicin geometric mean MIC for years 1-5 was 0.04 mg/L; only one fidaxomicin-resistant isolate (RT344) was submitted (MIC ≥ 4 mg/L). Metronidazole and vancomycin geometric mean MICs were 0.46 mg/L and 0.70 mg/L, respectively. Of prevalent RTs, RT027, RT017 and RT012 demonstrated resistance or reduced susceptibility to multiple antimicrobials. RT diversity was inversely correlated with mean CRS for individual countries (Pearson coefficient r = - 0.57). Overall, C. difficile RT prevalence remained stable in 2011-2016. Fidaxomicin susceptibility, including in RT027, was maintained post-introduction. Reduced ribotype diversity in individual countries was associated with increased antimicrobial resistance.