Diagnostic accuracy of selective arterial calcium injection test for localization of gastrinoma.Endocr J. 2020 Mar 28; 67(3):305-315.EJ
The appropriate localization of gastrinoma is still difficult. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of selective arterial calcium injection (SACI) for localization of gastrinomas including multiple lesions. This retrospective study included ten patients with surgically proven gastrinomas (gastrinoma group) and six patients without any findings suggesting Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (non-gastrinoma group). For SACI, calcium gluconate was injected into the arteries supplying pancreas, duodenum, and liver. Blood samples from the hepatic vein were obtained before and 30, 60, and 120 seconds after each injection. The results were considered positive when the increase in serum immunoreactive gastrin (IRG) levels within 60 seconds of calcium gluconate injection were more than 80 pg/mL and more than 20% from baseline. We evaluated the efficacy of SACI by comparing the SACI responses with definitive locations diagnosed by clinical and histopathological findings. In the gastrinoma group, false-positive responses were confirmed in seven of the ten patients. False-negative response was observed in one of the feeding arteries of one patient with gastrinomas in multiple locations. Conversely, the greatest increase in serum gastrin levels from baseline at 30 seconds indicated the true-positive responses in all patients with gastrinomas. In the non-gastrinoma group, calcium gluconate injection into gastroduodenal artery evoked positive responses in five of the six patients. In conclusion, our data suggest the strongest gastrin response evoked by SACI indicates the definitive location in patients with gastrinomas. In contrast, SACI could not accurately locate multiple gastrin-secreting lesions due to poor specificity.