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Effect of extraction time on content, composition and sensory perception of proanthocyanidins in wine-like medium and during industrial fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon.
J Sci Food Agric. 2020 Mar 30; 100(5):1887-1896.JS

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The research objectives focused on the extraction of grape tannins during extended maceration. Skins and seeds were extracted separately in a wine-like medium. In parallel, the same grapes were fermented in industrial tanks. The content and structural characteristics of extractable proanthocyanidins (PAs) were determined spectrophotometrically and using UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS, respectively. Skin, seed extracts and fermented wines were characterized in chemical and sensorial terms after different extraction durations.

RESULTS

The extraction of high molecular-weight PAs (HMWPs) from seeds increased for up to 20 days, whereas low molecular-weight PAs (LMWPs) reached a plateau earlier. The extraction of HMWPs and LMWPs from skins reached a maximum at the first sampling. Sensory evaluation confirmed greater astringency and bitterness of seed extracts with increasing time. Neither seed nor skin extracts differed statistically in terms of the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) and percentage of galloylation (%G) on different extraction days (except for seeds at the first sampling). During industrial maceration, HMWPs and LMWPs increased up to 12.7% alcohol (9 days of maceration); thereafter, the increase was not significant, whereas the mDP, %G and percentage of prodelphinidins did not significantly change after 11.4% alcohol. There were positive correlations with the wine astringency and PA content.

CONCLUSION

Looking at both simulated and industrial maceration, it can be concluded that, with a longer maceration time, the increase in HMWP content was more evident than PA structural changes. The increasing content of tannins from seeds played an important role in the greater astringency and bitterness of Cabernet Sauvignon macerated at length. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Fruit Growing, Viticulture and Oenology and Central Laboratory, Agricultural Institute of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia.Tikveš winery, Skopje, Macedonia.Frutarom Etol d.o.o, Škofja Vas, Slovenia.Department of Fruit Growing, Viticulture and Oenology and Central Laboratory, Agricultural Institute of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia.Université de Bordeaux, ISVV, EA 4577, Oenologie, Villenave d'Ornon, France.Department of Fruit Growing, Viticulture and Oenology and Central Laboratory, Agricultural Institute of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Pub Type(s)

Evaluation Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31821559

Citation

Lisjak, Klemen, et al. "Effect of Extraction Time On Content, Composition and Sensory Perception of Proanthocyanidins in Wine-like Medium and During Industrial Fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon." Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 100, no. 5, 2020, pp. 1887-1896.
Lisjak K, Lelova Z, Žigon U, et al. Effect of extraction time on content, composition and sensory perception of proanthocyanidins in wine-like medium and during industrial fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon. J Sci Food Agric. 2020;100(5):1887-1896.
Lisjak, K., Lelova, Z., Žigon, U., Bolta, Š. V., Teissedre, P. L., & Vanzo, A. (2020). Effect of extraction time on content, composition and sensory perception of proanthocyanidins in wine-like medium and during industrial fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 100(5), 1887-1896. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10189
Lisjak K, et al. Effect of Extraction Time On Content, Composition and Sensory Perception of Proanthocyanidins in Wine-like Medium and During Industrial Fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon. J Sci Food Agric. 2020 Mar 30;100(5):1887-1896. PubMed PMID: 31821559.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effect of extraction time on content, composition and sensory perception of proanthocyanidins in wine-like medium and during industrial fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon. AU - Lisjak,Klemen, AU - Lelova,Zorica, AU - Žigon,Uroš, AU - Bolta,Špela Velikonja, AU - Teissedre,Pierre-Louis, AU - Vanzo,Andreja, Y1 - 2020/02/04/ PY - 2019/08/30/received PY - 2019/11/12/revised PY - 2019/12/06/accepted PY - 2019/12/11/pubmed PY - 2020/3/19/medline PY - 2019/12/11/entrez KW - extraction KW - grape seeds KW - grape skins KW - industrial fermentation KW - proanthocyanidins SP - 1887 EP - 1896 JF - Journal of the science of food and agriculture JO - J. Sci. Food Agric. VL - 100 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: The research objectives focused on the extraction of grape tannins during extended maceration. Skins and seeds were extracted separately in a wine-like medium. In parallel, the same grapes were fermented in industrial tanks. The content and structural characteristics of extractable proanthocyanidins (PAs) were determined spectrophotometrically and using UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS, respectively. Skin, seed extracts and fermented wines were characterized in chemical and sensorial terms after different extraction durations. RESULTS: The extraction of high molecular-weight PAs (HMWPs) from seeds increased for up to 20 days, whereas low molecular-weight PAs (LMWPs) reached a plateau earlier. The extraction of HMWPs and LMWPs from skins reached a maximum at the first sampling. Sensory evaluation confirmed greater astringency and bitterness of seed extracts with increasing time. Neither seed nor skin extracts differed statistically in terms of the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) and percentage of galloylation (%G) on different extraction days (except for seeds at the first sampling). During industrial maceration, HMWPs and LMWPs increased up to 12.7% alcohol (9 days of maceration); thereafter, the increase was not significant, whereas the mDP, %G and percentage of prodelphinidins did not significantly change after 11.4% alcohol. There were positive correlations with the wine astringency and PA content. CONCLUSION: Looking at both simulated and industrial maceration, it can be concluded that, with a longer maceration time, the increase in HMWP content was more evident than PA structural changes. The increasing content of tannins from seeds played an important role in the greater astringency and bitterness of Cabernet Sauvignon macerated at length. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. SN - 1097-0010 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31821559/Effect_of_extraction_time_on_content_composition_and_sensory_perception_of_proanthocyanidins_in_wine_like_medium_and_during_industrial_fermentation_of_Cabernet_Sauvignon_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10189 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -