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Dynamic range expansion leads to establishment of a new, genetically distinct wolf population in Central Europe.
Sci Rep 2019; 9(1):19003SR

Abstract

Local extinction and recolonization events can shape genetic structure of subdivided animal populations. The gray wolf (Canis lupus) was extirpated from most of Europe, but recently recolonized big part of its historical range. An exceptionally dynamic expansion of wolf population is observed in the western part of the Great European Plain. Nonetheless, genetic consequences of this process have not yet been fully understood. We aimed to assess genetic diversity of this recently established wolf population in Western Poland (WPL), determine its origin and provide novel data regarding the population genetic structure of the grey wolf in Central Europe. We utilized both spatially explicit and non-explicit Bayesian clustering approaches, as well as a model-independent, multivariate method DAPC, to infer genetic structure in large dataset (881 identified individuals) of wolf microsatellite genotypes. To put the patterns observed in studied population into a broader biogeographic context we also analyzed a mtDNA control region fragment widely used in previous studies. In comparison to a source population, we found slightly reduced allelic richness and heterozygosity in the newly recolonized areas west of the Vistula river. We discovered relatively strong west-east structuring in lowland wolves, probably reflecting founder-flush and allele surfing during range expansion, resulting in clear distinction of WPL, eastern lowland and Carpathian genetic groups. Interestingly, wolves from recently recolonized mountainous areas (Sudetes Mts, SW Poland) clustered together with lowland, but not Carpathian wolf populations. We also identified an area in Central Poland that seems to be a melting pot of western, lowland eastern and Carpathian wolves. We conclude that the process of dynamic recolonization of Central European lowlands lead to the formation of a new, genetically distinct wolf population. Together with the settlement and establishment of packs in mountains by lowland wolves and vice versa, it suggests that demographic dynamics and possibly anthropogenic barriers rather than ecological factors (e.g. natal habitat-biased dispersal patterns) shape the current wolf genetic structure in Central Europe.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Genetics and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Pawińskiego 5a, 02-106, Warsaw, Poland. Association for Nature "Wolf", Twardorzeczka, Cynkowa 4, 34-324, Lipowa, Poland. Department of Vertebrate Ecology and Zoology, Faculty of Biology, University of Gdańsk, Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308, Gdańsk, Poland.Association for Nature "Wolf", Twardorzeczka, Cynkowa 4, 34-324, Lipowa, Poland.Association for Nature "Wolf", Twardorzeczka, Cynkowa 4, 34-324, Lipowa, Poland.Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Viničná 7, 128 43, Prague, Czech Republic. Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Chittussiho 10, 170 00, Ostrava, Czech Republic.Vytautas Magnus University, K. Donelaičio 58, 44248, Kaunas, Lithuania.Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Chittussiho 10, 170 00, Ostrava, Czech Republic.Department of Animal Science and Food Processing, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, Prague 6, 165 00, Czech Republic.State Nature Conservancy of Slovak Republic, Tajovského 28B, 974 01, Banská Bystrica, Slovakia.APB-BirdLife Belarus, Engelsa 34A - 1, 220030, Minsk, Belarus.Association for Nature "Wolf", Twardorzeczka, Cynkowa 4, 34-324, Lipowa, Poland.Association for Nature "Wolf", Twardorzeczka, Cynkowa 4, 34-324, Lipowa, Poland. Institute of Romance Studies, Faculty of Modern Languages and Literature, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Al. Niepodległości 4, 61-874, Poznań, Poland.Roztocze National Park, Plażowa 2, 22-470, Zwierzyniec, Poland.Institute of Genetics and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Pawińskiego 5a, 02-106, Warsaw, Poland. Association for Nature "Wolf", Twardorzeczka, Cynkowa 4, 34-324, Lipowa, Poland.Tatra National Park, Kuźnice 1, 34-500, Zakopane, Poland.Institute of Genetics and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Pawińskiego 5a, 02-106, Warsaw, Poland. robert.myslajek@igib.uw.edu.pl.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31831858

Citation

Szewczyk, Maciej, et al. "Dynamic Range Expansion Leads to Establishment of a New, Genetically Distinct Wolf Population in Central Europe." Scientific Reports, vol. 9, no. 1, 2019, p. 19003.
Szewczyk M, Nowak S, Niedźwiecka N, et al. Dynamic range expansion leads to establishment of a new, genetically distinct wolf population in Central Europe. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):19003.
Szewczyk, M., Nowak, S., Niedźwiecka, N., Hulva, P., Špinkytė-Bačkaitienė, R., Demjanovičová, K., ... Mysłajek, R. W. (2019). Dynamic range expansion leads to establishment of a new, genetically distinct wolf population in Central Europe. Scientific Reports, 9(1), p. 19003. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-55273-w.
Szewczyk M, et al. Dynamic Range Expansion Leads to Establishment of a New, Genetically Distinct Wolf Population in Central Europe. Sci Rep. 2019 Dec 12;9(1):19003. PubMed PMID: 31831858.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dynamic range expansion leads to establishment of a new, genetically distinct wolf population in Central Europe. AU - Szewczyk,Maciej, AU - Nowak,Sabina, AU - Niedźwiecka,Natalia, AU - Hulva,Pavel, AU - Špinkytė-Bačkaitienė,Renata, AU - Demjanovičová,Klára, AU - Bolfíková,Barbora Černá, AU - Antal,Vladimír, AU - Fenchuk,Viktar, AU - Figura,Michał, AU - Tomczak,Patrycja, AU - Stachyra,Przemysław, AU - Stępniak,Kinga M, AU - Zwijacz-Kozica,Tomasz, AU - Mysłajek,Robert W, Y1 - 2019/12/12/ PY - 2019/06/12/received PY - 2019/11/06/accepted PY - 2019/12/14/entrez PY - 2019/12/14/pubmed PY - 2019/12/14/medline SP - 19003 EP - 19003 JF - Scientific reports JO - Sci Rep VL - 9 IS - 1 N2 - Local extinction and recolonization events can shape genetic structure of subdivided animal populations. The gray wolf (Canis lupus) was extirpated from most of Europe, but recently recolonized big part of its historical range. An exceptionally dynamic expansion of wolf population is observed in the western part of the Great European Plain. Nonetheless, genetic consequences of this process have not yet been fully understood. We aimed to assess genetic diversity of this recently established wolf population in Western Poland (WPL), determine its origin and provide novel data regarding the population genetic structure of the grey wolf in Central Europe. We utilized both spatially explicit and non-explicit Bayesian clustering approaches, as well as a model-independent, multivariate method DAPC, to infer genetic structure in large dataset (881 identified individuals) of wolf microsatellite genotypes. To put the patterns observed in studied population into a broader biogeographic context we also analyzed a mtDNA control region fragment widely used in previous studies. In comparison to a source population, we found slightly reduced allelic richness and heterozygosity in the newly recolonized areas west of the Vistula river. We discovered relatively strong west-east structuring in lowland wolves, probably reflecting founder-flush and allele surfing during range expansion, resulting in clear distinction of WPL, eastern lowland and Carpathian genetic groups. Interestingly, wolves from recently recolonized mountainous areas (Sudetes Mts, SW Poland) clustered together with lowland, but not Carpathian wolf populations. We also identified an area in Central Poland that seems to be a melting pot of western, lowland eastern and Carpathian wolves. We conclude that the process of dynamic recolonization of Central European lowlands lead to the formation of a new, genetically distinct wolf population. Together with the settlement and establishment of packs in mountains by lowland wolves and vice versa, it suggests that demographic dynamics and possibly anthropogenic barriers rather than ecological factors (e.g. natal habitat-biased dispersal patterns) shape the current wolf genetic structure in Central Europe. SN - 2045-2322 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31831858/Dynamic_range_expansion_leads_to_establishment_of_a_new,_genetically_distinct_wolf_population_in_Central_Europe L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-55273-w DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -