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Variation in Facility-Level Rates of All-Cause and Potentially Preventable 30-Day Hospital Readmissions Among Medicare Fee-for-Service Beneficiaries After Discharge From Postacute Inpatient Rehabilitation.
JAMA Netw Open. 2019 12 02; 2(12):e1917559.JN

Abstract

Importance

The Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014 mandated a quality measure of potentially preventable 30-day hospital readmission for inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs). Examining IRF performance nationally may help inform health care quality initiatives for Medicare beneficiaries.

Objective

To examine variation in Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Quality Reporting Program measures for US facility-level risk-adjusted all-cause and potentially preventable hospital readmission rates after inpatient rehabilitation.

Design, Setting, and Participants

This cohort study of Medicare claims data included 454 378 Medicare beneficiaries discharged from 1162 IRFs between June 1, 2013, and July 1, 2015. Data were analyzed March 23, 2018, through June 24, 2019.

Main Outcomes and Measures

All-Cause Unplanned Readmission Measure for 30 Days Post Discharge From Inpatient Rehabilitation Facilities and the Potentially Preventable 30-Day Post-Discharge Readmission Measure for Inpatient Rehabilitation. Specifications from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services were followed to identify the cohort, define outcomes, and calculate risk-standardized facility-level rates.

Results

Among a cohort of 454 378 patients, the mean (SD) age was 76.2 (10.6) years and 263 546 (58.0%) were women. The all-cause readmission rate was 12.3% (95% CI, 12.2%-12.4%), and the potentially preventable readmission rate was 5.3% (95% CI, 5.3%-5.4%). Across 1162 included IRFs, risk-standardized all-cause readmission rates ranged from 10.1% (95% CI, 8.9%-11.6%) to 15.9% (95% CI, 13.6-18.6%) and potentially preventable readmission rates ranged from 4.3% (95% CI, 3.7%-5.4%) to 7.3% (95% CI, 5.7%-8.3%). Using the All-Cause Unplanned Readmission Measure for 30 Days Post Discharge From Inpatient Rehabilitation Facilities, 16 IRFs (1.4%) had 95% CIs above the national mean rate, 1137 IRFs (97.9%) had 95% CIs containing the national mean rate, and 9 IRFs (0.8%) had 95% CIs below the national mean rate. Using the Potentially Preventable 30-Day Post-Discharge Readmission Measure for Inpatient Rehabilitation, 8 IRFs (0.7%) had 95% CIs above the national mean rate, 1153 IRFs (99.2%) had 95% CIs containing the national mean rate, and 1 IRF (0.1%) had a 95% CI below the national mean rate.

Conclusions and Relevance

This cohort study found that readmission rates were lower when using the Potentially Preventable 30-Day Post-Discharge Readmission Measure for Inpatient Rehabilitation and further reduced discrimination between facilities compared with the recently discontinued All-Cause Unplanned Readmission Measure for 30 Days Post Discharge From Inpatient Rehabilitation Facilities. This finding may indicate there is a lack of room for improvement in readmission rates. Given the rationale of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services for removing measures that fail to discriminate quality performance, this suggests that the current readmission measure should not be implemented as part of the Inpatient Rehabilitation Quality Reporting Program.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Occupational Therapy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora.Division of Physical Therapy, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston.University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston.University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston.Department of Occupational Therapy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Observational Study
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31834398

Citation

Malcolm, Matt P., et al. "Variation in Facility-Level Rates of All-Cause and Potentially Preventable 30-Day Hospital Readmissions Among Medicare Fee-for-Service Beneficiaries After Discharge From Postacute Inpatient Rehabilitation." JAMA Network Open, vol. 2, no. 12, 2019, pp. e1917559.
Malcolm MP, Middleton A, Haas A, et al. Variation in Facility-Level Rates of All-Cause and Potentially Preventable 30-Day Hospital Readmissions Among Medicare Fee-for-Service Beneficiaries After Discharge From Postacute Inpatient Rehabilitation. JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(12):e1917559.
Malcolm, M. P., Middleton, A., Haas, A., Ottenbacher, K. J., & Graham, J. E. (2019). Variation in Facility-Level Rates of All-Cause and Potentially Preventable 30-Day Hospital Readmissions Among Medicare Fee-for-Service Beneficiaries After Discharge From Postacute Inpatient Rehabilitation. JAMA Network Open, 2(12), e1917559. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.17559
Malcolm MP, et al. Variation in Facility-Level Rates of All-Cause and Potentially Preventable 30-Day Hospital Readmissions Among Medicare Fee-for-Service Beneficiaries After Discharge From Postacute Inpatient Rehabilitation. JAMA Netw Open. 2019 12 2;2(12):e1917559. PubMed PMID: 31834398.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Variation in Facility-Level Rates of All-Cause and Potentially Preventable 30-Day Hospital Readmissions Among Medicare Fee-for-Service Beneficiaries After Discharge From Postacute Inpatient Rehabilitation. AU - Malcolm,Matt P, AU - Middleton,Addie, AU - Haas,Allen, AU - Ottenbacher,Kenneth J, AU - Graham,James E, Y1 - 2019/12/02/ PY - 2019/12/14/entrez PY - 2019/12/14/pubmed PY - 2020/6/23/medline SP - e1917559 EP - e1917559 JF - JAMA network open JO - JAMA Netw Open VL - 2 IS - 12 N2 - Importance: The Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014 mandated a quality measure of potentially preventable 30-day hospital readmission for inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs). Examining IRF performance nationally may help inform health care quality initiatives for Medicare beneficiaries. Objective: To examine variation in Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Quality Reporting Program measures for US facility-level risk-adjusted all-cause and potentially preventable hospital readmission rates after inpatient rehabilitation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study of Medicare claims data included 454 378 Medicare beneficiaries discharged from 1162 IRFs between June 1, 2013, and July 1, 2015. Data were analyzed March 23, 2018, through June 24, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-Cause Unplanned Readmission Measure for 30 Days Post Discharge From Inpatient Rehabilitation Facilities and the Potentially Preventable 30-Day Post-Discharge Readmission Measure for Inpatient Rehabilitation. Specifications from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services were followed to identify the cohort, define outcomes, and calculate risk-standardized facility-level rates. Results: Among a cohort of 454 378 patients, the mean (SD) age was 76.2 (10.6) years and 263 546 (58.0%) were women. The all-cause readmission rate was 12.3% (95% CI, 12.2%-12.4%), and the potentially preventable readmission rate was 5.3% (95% CI, 5.3%-5.4%). Across 1162 included IRFs, risk-standardized all-cause readmission rates ranged from 10.1% (95% CI, 8.9%-11.6%) to 15.9% (95% CI, 13.6-18.6%) and potentially preventable readmission rates ranged from 4.3% (95% CI, 3.7%-5.4%) to 7.3% (95% CI, 5.7%-8.3%). Using the All-Cause Unplanned Readmission Measure for 30 Days Post Discharge From Inpatient Rehabilitation Facilities, 16 IRFs (1.4%) had 95% CIs above the national mean rate, 1137 IRFs (97.9%) had 95% CIs containing the national mean rate, and 9 IRFs (0.8%) had 95% CIs below the national mean rate. Using the Potentially Preventable 30-Day Post-Discharge Readmission Measure for Inpatient Rehabilitation, 8 IRFs (0.7%) had 95% CIs above the national mean rate, 1153 IRFs (99.2%) had 95% CIs containing the national mean rate, and 1 IRF (0.1%) had a 95% CI below the national mean rate. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that readmission rates were lower when using the Potentially Preventable 30-Day Post-Discharge Readmission Measure for Inpatient Rehabilitation and further reduced discrimination between facilities compared with the recently discontinued All-Cause Unplanned Readmission Measure for 30 Days Post Discharge From Inpatient Rehabilitation Facilities. This finding may indicate there is a lack of room for improvement in readmission rates. Given the rationale of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services for removing measures that fail to discriminate quality performance, this suggests that the current readmission measure should not be implemented as part of the Inpatient Rehabilitation Quality Reporting Program. SN - 2574-3805 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31834398/Variation_in_Facility_Level_Rates_of_All_Cause_and_Potentially_Preventable_30_Day_Hospital_Readmissions_Among_Medicare_Fee_for_Service_Beneficiaries_After_Discharge_From_Postacute_Inpatient_Rehabilitation_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -