Inosine protects against impairment of memory induced by experimental model of Alzheimer disease: a nucleoside with multitarget brain actions.Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2020 Mar; 237(3):811-823.P
Inosine is a naturally occurring purine nucleoside formed by adenosine breakdown. This nucleoside is reported to exert potent effects on memory and learning, possibly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions.
The objective is to evaluate the effects of inosine on the behavioral and neurochemical parameters in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) induced by streptozotocin (STZ).
Adult male rats were divided into four groups: control (saline), STZ, STZ plus inosine (50 mg/kg), and STZ plus inosine (100 mg/kg). STZ (3 mg/kg) was administered by bilateral intracerebroventricular injection. The animals were treated intraperitoneally with inosine for 25 days. Memory, oxidative stress, ion pump activities, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activities and expression were evaluated in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.
The memory impairment induced by STZ was prevented by inosine. An increase in the Na+, K+-ATPase, and Mg-ATPase activities and a decrease in the Ca2+-ATPase activity were induced by STZ in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, and inosine could prevent these alterations in ion pump activities. Inosine also prevented the increase in AChE activity and the alterations in AChE and ChAT expression induced by STZ. STZ increased the reactive oxygen species, nitrite levels, and superoxide dismutase activity and decreased the catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Inosine treatment conferred protection from these oxidative alterations in the brain.
Our findings demonstrate that inosine affects brain multiple targets suggesting that this molecule may have therapeutic potential against cognitive deficit and tissue damage in AD.