Comparison of oxidative stress induced by clarithromycin in two freshwater microalgae Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris.Aquat Toxicol. 2020 Feb; 219:105376.AT
Clarithromycin (CLA), a macrolide antibiotic, has been frequently detected in the global surface waters. Concerns have been raised over the potential impacts of CLA on the non-target aquatic species, particularly algae acting as the primary producers in the ecosystem. This study therefore evaluated the toxicological effects of CLA at a range of concentration levels (0, 5, 20, 40, 80 μg L-1) on two green algae, Raphidocelis subcapitata (R. subcapitata) and Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris). The algal growth, photosynthetic pigment contents, lipid peroxidation biomarker malondialdehyde (MDA), responses of antioxidants including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GP), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were measured. After 7 d exposure, the growth of R. subcapitata was inhibited with the CLA exposure levels higher than 20 μg L-1, whereas the inhibition in C. vulgaris was detected at the concentration level of 80 μg L-1. The MDA contents in both species were elevated. To cope with the increased levels of ROS, the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GP, and GST) and the content of non-enzymatic antioxidant (GSH) in R. subcapitata were all enhanced. However, in C. vulgaris, enhancement was detected only in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GP). In addition, chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoid contents were all significantly increased in R. subcapitata but decreased in C. vulgaris. The results suggested that R. subcapitata is more sensitive to CLA exposure than C. vulgaris. This study provides insights into the CLA - oxidative stress process in two algae.