Extract of common mallow (Malvae sylvestris) enhances growth, immunity, and resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings against Yersinia ruckeri infection.Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2020 Jan; 96:254-261.FS
The dietary effects of a native medicinal plant from Iran, common mallow (Malvae sylvestris), was evaluated on growth performance, innate immune parameters, mucosal immune parameters, and resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) against Yersinia ruckeri. Therefore, 360 fish (initial weight 10.42 ± 0.09 g) were randomly distributed into 12 fiberglass tanks. Experimental diets supplemented with 0 (as control- C), 1% (M1), 3% (M2) and 5% (M3) levels of M. sylvestris flowers extract were fed to the fish based on 3% of body weight for 8 weeks. At the terminal sampling, growth performance, liver and digestive enzymes activities, blood and mucosal immune responses were determined. Results showed that M2 and M3 had greater final weight, weight gain, SGR, survival rate and lower FCR; higher levels of total protein, albumin, globulin, and lower cortisol levels in comparison to control; 5% extract also lowered cholesterol and glucose levels as well as Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. We reported higher values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), White Blood Cell (WBC), Red Blood Cell (RBC) and lymphocytes for treated groups. Innate immune responses (Alternative complement activity (ACH50) in M2 and M3 group, total Immunoglobulin (Ig) and lysozyme in M3), mucosal immune parameters (ACH50, total Ig for M2 and M3 group and lysozyme in all treated groups) were enhanced. Activities of digestive enzymes (protease in all treated groups, amylase for 3 and 5%, while lipase only for 5%) and lower activity of liver ALT enzyme in individuals treated with highest dose was observed. Overall results indicated that the extract can positively affect growth performance and immune responses of rainbow trout.