Laparoscopy-assisted Neocervicovaginal Reconstruction in a Rare Case of Müllerian Anomaly: Cervicovaginal Aplasia with Unicornuate Uterus.J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2019JM
To demonstrate a technique of laparoscopy-assisted neocervicovaginal reconstruction in a case of cervicovaginal aplasia.
Step-by-step demonstration of the surgery in an instructional video.
Cervicovaginal aplasia is a rare congenital anomaly that occurs in 1 in 80 000 to 100 000 live births . Occasionally, there can be other associated anomalies. Epigenetic modifications of homeobox and Wnt genes (wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus integration site family) are hypothesized to cause defects in the development of the müllerian reproductive tract by interfering with cell migration during organogenesis . Our patient was a 15-year-old girl who had a unicornuate uterus along with cervicovaginal aplasia (American Society for Reproductive Medicine class Ia, Ib, and IIc and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology class U4a, C4, and V4). The most common approach to treat this particular anomaly is hysterectomy, but there are many reports of neocervicovaginal reconstruction with good results .
Laparoscopic assessment showed a right unicornuate uterus with hematometra, right hematosalpinx, and a left noncavitary rudimentary horn with endometriosis. A vertical incision was made over the most prominent bulging part of the uterine fundus, and the hematometra was drained. Laparoscopic inspection of the uterine cavity showed an irregular cavity with thickened endometrium. The cervical canal could not be identified. The inspection of the external genitalia revealed complete vaginal aplasia. An inverted T incision was made over the vestibule and neovagina created by blunt digital dissection. The bladder was laparoscopically mobilized down. A Maryland dissector was inserted into the uterine cavity through the incision in the fundus and directed toward the neovagina. The myometrium was then punctured while simultaneously visualizing the neovagina to create a neocervix. A 16-F Foley's catheter was then pulled into the uterine cavity with the Maryland dissector from the vaginal end. The neocervix was enlarged around the catheter and then sutured to the vestibular epithelium with 6 interrupted 1-0 polyglactin sutures. The Foley's catheter was anchored to the myometrium laparoscopically, and the uterine incision was closed with interrupted 1-0 polyglactin sutures. The right hematosalpinx was then excised. The intravaginal plastic mold was removed after 4 days. The patient was advised to use the bulb of a plastic pipette to help maintain vaginal patency. She resumed her menses 3 weeks after the surgery. Follow-up at 8 months revealed a normal-sized uterus on transabdominal ultrasound and a vaginal length of 5.5 cm on speculum examination. She currently reports regular cyclic menstruation with mild dysmenorrhea and has not yet begun sexual activity.
Cervicovaginal aplasia can be successfully treated by laparoscopy-assisted neocervicovaginal reconstruction as demonstrated in the video.