Reviewing the risk of feed as a vehicle for swine pathogen transmission.Vet Med Sci. 2019 Dec 18 [Online ahead of print]VM
While porcine biological hazards have had the potential to be transmitted through feed and feed mills for decades, the emerging threat of foreign animal disease has elevated the concern that these may enter or be transmitted throughout the domestic swine herd via a feed vehicle.
The goal of this review was to describe the current classification for emerging porcine biological pathogen transmission through the feed supply chain so resources can be best directed towards those of highest risk.
By assessing the pathogen severity to pigs and the probability of pathogen transmission through feed, an overall risk can be established using a hazard analysis matrix.
There is negligible risk for feed-based transmission of a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, Trichinella spiralis, Toxoplasma gondii, Salmonella Choleraesuis, Salmonella spp. except Choleraesuis and I 4,,12:i:-, porcine deltacoronavirus, Senecavirus A, mammalian orthoreovirus 3, foot and mouth disease virus, classical swine fever virus or Chinese pseudorabies virus. However, the combined severity and probability of Salmonella enterica serotype I 4,,12:i:-, porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus and African swine fever virus warrant a moderate risk characterization for transmission through the US feed supply chain.
This risk can be maintained below critical status by minimizing the likelihood that a pathogen can enter the feed supply chain, such as by excluding high-risk ingredients from facilities, extending biosecurity to mills, and considering proactive mitigation strategies. In reality, all these actions may be necessary to prevent the detrimental transmission of porcine biological hazards into the US swine herd through the feed supply chain.