Lipid Profiling and Stable Isotopic Data Analysis for Differentiation of Extra Virgin Olive Oils Based on Their Origin.Molecules. 2019 Dec 18; 25(1)M
To differentiate extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) according to the origin of purchase, such as monocultivar Italian EVOO with protected denomination of origin (PDO) and commercially-blended EVOO purchased in supermarkets, a number of samples was subjected to the analysis of various lipid species by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS, LC-ESI-IT-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis (1H-NMR). Many putative chemical markers were extracted as differentiators by uni- and multivariate statistical analysis. Commercially-blended EVOO contained higher concentrations of the majority of minor lipids, including free fatty acids, their alkyl (methyl and ethyl) esters, monoglycerides, and diglycerides, which may be indicative of a higher degree of triglyceride lipolysis in these than in monocultivar PDO EVOO. Triterpenoids and particular TAG species were also found in higher proportions in the samples from the commercially-blended EVOO class, suggesting a possible influence of factors such as the cultivar and geographical origin. The largest differences between the classes were determined for the concentrations of uvaol and oleanolic acid. The results of the analysis by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) were reasonably consistent with the information about the geographical origin declared on the labels of the investigated EVOOs, showing considerable variability, which possibly also contributed to the differences in lipid composition observed between the two investigated classes of EVOO.