Alternative Effective and Safe Induction Regimens for Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Patients With Cardiac Contraindication to Anthracyclines.Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2019 Nov 26 [Online ahead of print]CL
The standard first-line treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a combination of cytarabine and anthracyclines. To date, there is no commonly agreed-on regimen for patients who are ineligible for this therapy because of cardiac comorbidities or prior exposure to anthracyclines. We compared 3 anthracycline-free regimens currently used in France.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Two patients with newly diagnosed or relapsed/refractory AML were treated intensively in 3 French centers. All patients had at least one contraindication to the receipt of anthracyclines. Three regimen types were used: fludarabine, cytarabine, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (FLAG); clofarabine and cytarabine (CLARA); and topotecan plus cytarabine (TA).
Thirty patients (58%) had de novo AML. The European LeukemiaNet 2013 risk categories were favorable, intermediate, and adverse in 4 (8%), 27 (52%), and 20 (39%) patients, respectively. Twenty-four patients received TA and 28 FLAG/CLARA regimens. Fifty percent of patients had cardiac dysfunction, and 50% had prior anthracycline exposure above the maximum tolerated dose. The rate of cardiac events was similar after TA (17%) and FLAG/CLARA (25%) (P = .78). The 5-year nonrelapse mortality was 17.9% and 12.5% in the TA and FLAG/CLARA groups, respectively (P = .59). In patients with previously untreated AML, complete response occurred in 18 (72%) of 25, but median overall survival was only 9.7 months.
TA, FLAG, and CLARA regimens are efficient and are associated with acceptable toxicity in AML patients ineligible for the 3 + 7 regimen as a result of cardiac comorbidities. However, long-term outcome remains disappointing, thereby highlighting the need for the development of less toxic regimens.