Yield advantage and cadmium decreasing of rice in intercropping with water spinach under moisture management.Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2020 Mar 01; 190:110102.EE
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) intercropping with water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk) is an effective agricultural practice for safe crop production and for phytoremediation in cadmium-contaminated soil. A field and pot experiment were conducted to investigate the growth and cadmium absorption of rice intercropped with water spinach under different moisture management schemes (continuous flooding, interval flooding, and 75% field capacity). In the field experiment, the concentration of Cd in the grain of rice was significantly lower in the intercropping system than that permitted by the National Food Safety Standard of China (GB 2762-2017). Furthermore, the land equivalent ratio (1.42) was higher in the rice-water spinach intercropping system, indicating a significant advantage of the intercropping system in yield. At the same time, the bio-concentration amount (BCA) of Cd of rice and water spinach in intercropping system significantly increased by 17.99% and 31.98%, respectively (P＜0.05). However, the metal removal equivalent ratio (MRER) of Cd was 1.34, which showed the intercropping system of rice-water spinach had advantage in Cd removal. In the pot experiment, the total iron plaque concentration on the root surface of rice and the pH of the rhizosphere soil were higher under continuous flooding (TCF) than under the control conditions (75% field capacity, TCK), which could significantly decrease the available Cd in the rhizosphere soil and the accumulation of Cd in rice organs. So, this study demonstrated that iron plaque can obstruct and decrease the Cd absorbed by rice in a rice-water spinach intercropping system combined with water management. The intercropping rice with water spinach can achieve the goal of remediation while producing for farmland contaminated by Cd.