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Magnetization dynamics of weakly interacting sub-100 nm square artificial spin ices.
Sci Rep 2019; 9(1):19967SR

Abstract

Artificial Spin Ice (ASI), consisting of a two dimensional array of nanoscale magnetic elements, provides a fascinating opportunity to observe the physics of out-of-equilibrium systems. Initial studies concentrated on the static, frozen state, whilst more recent studies have accessed the out-of-equilibrium dynamic, fluctuating state. This opens up exciting possibilities such as the observation of systems exploring their energy landscape through monopole quasiparticle creation, potentially leading to ASI magnetricity, and to directly observe unconventional phase transitions. In this work we have measured and analysed the magnetic relaxation of thermally active ASI systems by means of SQUID magnetometry. We have investigated the effect of the interaction strength on the magnetization dynamics at different temperatures in the range where the nanomagnets are thermally active. We have observed that they follow an Arrhenius-type Néel-Brown behaviour. An unexpected negative correlation of the average blocking temperature with the interaction strength is also observed, which is supported by Monte Carlo simulations. The magnetization relaxation measurements show faster relaxation for more strongly coupled nanoelements with similar dimensions. The analysis of the stretching exponents obtained from the measurements suggest 1-D chain-like magnetization dynamics. This indicates that the nature of the interactions between nanoelements lowers the dimensionality of the ASI from 2-D to 1-D. Finally, we present a way to quantify the effective interaction energy of a square ASI system, and compare it to the interaction energy computed with micromagnetic simulations.

Authors+Show Affiliations

ISIS Neutron and Muon Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, OX11 0QX, United Kingdom. jm.porro@bcmaterials.net. BCMaterials, Basque Center for Materials, Applications & Nanostructures, 48940, Leioa, Spain. jm.porro@bcmaterials.net. Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, 48013, Bilbao, Spain. jm.porro@bcmaterials.net.School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom. Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, 95064 CA, USA. Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA.ISIS Neutron and Muon Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, OX11 0QX, United Kingdom.James Watt School of Engineering, Electronics and Nanoscale Engineering Division, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, United Kingdom.School of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom.School of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom.School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, United Kingdom. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2, Canada.School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom.ISIS Neutron and Muon Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, OX11 0QX, United Kingdom.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31882867

Citation

Porro, Jose M., et al. "Magnetization Dynamics of Weakly Interacting Sub-100 Nm Square Artificial Spin Ices." Scientific Reports, vol. 9, no. 1, 2019, p. 19967.
Porro JM, Morley SA, Venero DA, et al. Magnetization dynamics of weakly interacting sub-100 nm square artificial spin ices. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):19967.
Porro, J. M., Morley, S. A., Venero, D. A., Macêdo, R., Rosamond, M. C., Linfield, E. H., ... Langridge, S. (2019). Magnetization dynamics of weakly interacting sub-100 nm square artificial spin ices. Scientific Reports, 9(1), p. 19967. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-56219-y.
Porro JM, et al. Magnetization Dynamics of Weakly Interacting Sub-100 Nm Square Artificial Spin Ices. Sci Rep. 2019 Dec 27;9(1):19967. PubMed PMID: 31882867.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Magnetization dynamics of weakly interacting sub-100 nm square artificial spin ices. AU - Porro,Jose M, AU - Morley,Sophie A, AU - Venero,Diego Alba, AU - Macêdo,Rair, AU - Rosamond,Mark C, AU - Linfield,Edmund H, AU - Stamps,Robert L, AU - Marrows,Christopher H, AU - Langridge,Sean, Y1 - 2019/12/27/ PY - 2019/05/14/received PY - 2019/12/06/accepted PY - 2019/12/29/entrez PY - 2019/12/29/pubmed PY - 2019/12/29/medline SP - 19967 EP - 19967 JF - Scientific reports JO - Sci Rep VL - 9 IS - 1 N2 - Artificial Spin Ice (ASI), consisting of a two dimensional array of nanoscale magnetic elements, provides a fascinating opportunity to observe the physics of out-of-equilibrium systems. Initial studies concentrated on the static, frozen state, whilst more recent studies have accessed the out-of-equilibrium dynamic, fluctuating state. This opens up exciting possibilities such as the observation of systems exploring their energy landscape through monopole quasiparticle creation, potentially leading to ASI magnetricity, and to directly observe unconventional phase transitions. In this work we have measured and analysed the magnetic relaxation of thermally active ASI systems by means of SQUID magnetometry. We have investigated the effect of the interaction strength on the magnetization dynamics at different temperatures in the range where the nanomagnets are thermally active. We have observed that they follow an Arrhenius-type Néel-Brown behaviour. An unexpected negative correlation of the average blocking temperature with the interaction strength is also observed, which is supported by Monte Carlo simulations. The magnetization relaxation measurements show faster relaxation for more strongly coupled nanoelements with similar dimensions. The analysis of the stretching exponents obtained from the measurements suggest 1-D chain-like magnetization dynamics. This indicates that the nature of the interactions between nanoelements lowers the dimensionality of the ASI from 2-D to 1-D. Finally, we present a way to quantify the effective interaction energy of a square ASI system, and compare it to the interaction energy computed with micromagnetic simulations. SN - 2045-2322 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31882867/Magnetization_dynamics_of_weakly_interacting_sub-100_nm_square_artificial_spin_ices L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-56219-y DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -