Profile of pathogenic proteins in total circulating extracellular vesicles in mild cognitive impairment and during the progression of Alzheimer's disease.Neurobiol Aging. 2020 02; 86:102-111.NA
Accumulating evidence suggests that the propagation of hyperphosphorylation of tau protein and the amyloid-β peptide can be mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs) and be associated with the onset and the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As EVs may transfer between the brain and the blood, we have thus hypothesized that the total plasma EVs (pEVs) may contain potential markers to predict the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD progression. We have thus quantified AD-related proteins in isolated pEVs from controls, MCI and AD subjects. In pEVs, we observed early changes of total tau (tTau), amyloid precursor protein levels, and phospho-tau (pTau)-T181/tTau ratio from MCI subjects and late increases of Aβ42 and pTau-T181 levels from patients with moderate AD. Interestingly, abnormal amyloid precursor protein levels and pTau-T181/tTau ratio in pEVs demonstrated a high accuracy to define MCI and AD staging. Although larger samples sizes will be needed to generate well-powered investigations, these preliminary results highlighted the potential of AD-related proteins enriched in pEVs as a sensitive tool for differentiating patients with MCI to patients with AD and monitoring AD progression.