Electrochemical analysis of uric acid excretion to the intestinal lumen: Effect of serum uric acid-lowering drugs and 5/6 nephrectomy on intestinal uric acid levels.PLoS One. 2019; 14(12):e0226918.Plos
Recently, extensive efforts have been made to understand the importance of the extra-renal uric acid (UA) excretion pathways and their contribution to UA-related diseases. However, the method typically used to measure UA concentrations in the intestinal lumen is difficult to real time and dynamic analysis. In this study, UA excretion in the rat intestinal lumen was measured in real time using an electrochemical method. A sensitive electrode to detect UA was constructed using a gold electrode modified with a mixed self-assembled monolayer. Excretion rate of UA in the intestine was calculated using time course data. A decrease in UA excretion rate was observed in the intestine after administration of serum UA-lowering drugs (benzbromarone, febuxostat, and topiroxostat). Inhibition of ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) which has been reported as an important exporter of UA was suggested by administration of these drugs. On the other hand, an increase in excretion rate of UA was observed in the intestine of 5/6 nephrectomy rats. Upregulation of mRNA expression of the UA transporter organic anion transporter OAT3, which is related to the secretion at the basal membrane, suggested an enhancement of UA excretion by ABCG2, a high-capacity UA exporter. Observed urate excretion dynamics and mRNA expression of UA transporters in the intestine upon administration of serum UA-lowering drugs and 5/6 nephrectomy improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of intestinal UA excretion.