Disinfection byproducts and halogen-specific total organic halogen speciation in chlorinated source waters - The impact of iopamidol and bromide.J Environ Sci (China). 2020 Mar; 89:90-101.JE
This study investigated the speciation of halogen-specific total organic halogen and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) upon chlorination of natural organic matter (NOM) in the presence of iopamidol and bromide (Br-). Experiments were conducted with low bromide source waters with different NOM characteristics from Northeast Ohio, USA and varied spiked levels of bromide (2-30 μmol/L) and iopamidol (1-5 μmol/L). Iopamidol was found to be a direct precursor to trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetic acid formation, and in the presence of Br- favored brominated analogs. The concentration and speciation of DBPs formed were impacted by iopamidol and bromide concentrations, as well as the presence of NOM. As iopamidol increased the concentration of iodinated DBPs (iodo-DBPs) and THMs increased. However, as Br- concentrations increased, the concentrations of non-brominated iodo- and chloro-DBPs decreased while brominated-DBPs increased. Regardless of the concentration of either iopamidol or bromide, bromochloroiodomethane (CHBrClI) was the most predominant iodo-DBP formed except at the lowest bromide concentration studied. At relevant concentrations of iopamidol (1 μmol/L) and bromide (2 μmol/L), significant quantities of highly toxic iodinated and brominated DBPs were formed. However, the rapid oxidation and incorporation of bromide appear to inhibit iodo-DBP formation under conditions relevant to drinking water treatment.