Adhesion-Regulating Molecule from Haemonchus contortus: Potential Antigen for Diagnosis of Early Infection in Goats.Pathogens. 2019 Dec 30; 9(1)P
Haemonchus contortus, a blood-sucking nematode of ruminants, causes large economic losses worldwide. Diagnosis of infection mainly depends on the evaluation of clinical signs and fecal examination. However, this has limitations for the diagnosis of early or light infections, where serological diagnosis seems to be more accurate and reliable. In this study, the recombinant H. contortus adhesion-regulating molecule protein (rHCADRM) was expressed and purified, and its diagnostic potential was evaluated. Serum samples from goats experimentally infected with H. contortus (n = 5) were collected at 0 (before infection, negative control), 7, 14, 21, 35, 49, 63, 85, and 103 days post-infection (DPI). The reactions between rHcADRM and goat serum were tested using Western blot (WB) analysis. The results show that rHcADRM can be recognized in the serum as early as 14 DPI, and the antibody against rHcADRM in infected goat could be maintained for over 89 days. No reaction was found between rHcADRM and antibodies against Trichinella spiralis, Fasciola hepatica, or Toxoplasma gondii. An indirect enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) was developed based on rHcADRM. The optimal coating antigen (279 ng of rHcADRM/well) and serum dilutions (1:50) were determined by checkerboard titration. A total of 64 serum samples, including 32 from H. contortus infection goats and 32 from helminth-free goats, were used to determine the positive (0.362) and negative (0.306) cut-off values for the ELISA. The results show this serological diagnosis method is highly sensitive (90.6%) and specific (93.75%). The coefficient of variation within run and between runs was less than 11%. To apply this indirect ELISA during field examination, 51 serum samples were randomly collected from goat farms and tested using this method. The result showed that 19.6% (10/51) of goats were infected with H. contortus, which was 100% consistent with the necropsy result, higher than that of fecal examination (15.7%, 8/51). These results indicate that rHcADRM could be a potential antigen for diagnosis of H. contortus infection in goats.