Phthalate esters contamination in vegetable-soil system of facility greenhouses in Jingmen, central China and the assessment of health risk.Environ Geochem Health. 2020 Sep; 42(9):2703-2721.EG
Residual levels of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs) compounds in top soils and vegetables of 40 selected greenhouses in two typical facility vegetable greenhouse production areas of Jingmen (Hubei, central China) were determined. Total concentrations of six target PAEs (Σ6PAEs) in 72 vegetable and 40 soil samples ranged from 862 ± 209 to 4260 ± 385 µg kg-1 (dry weight, DW), and from 1122 ± 156 to 4134 ± 272 µg kg-1 (DW), respectively. Di-n-butyl phthalate and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are the two most frequently and massively detected in all samples. The highest Σ6PAEs appeared in leaf samples of Tuanlin, vegetable fruits of Zhongxiang and soils of Tuanlin. No carcinogenic risk was posed based on the results of health risk assessment, but non-carcinogenic risk of DEHP to children less than 6 years old in Tuanlin (all 24 sampling sites) and Zhongxiang (4/16 sampling sites) and people older than 6 years old in Tuanlin (19/24 sampling sites) were achieved from hazard quotient values. The contamination risk problem of PAEs in Tuanlin deserves greatest concern in Jingmen. Combined with the results of our former study, the health risks of target pollutants were clarified and the lack of survey data on PAE concentrations in facility vegetable greenhouses of central China was filled in. Due to high residuals and significant non-carcinogenic risk values, DEHP should be nominated as priority PAEs in China. Our study suggested better regulation for PAEs control in intensively managed greenhouses and references for revision of Chinese environmental standards.