Elucidating antimicrobial mechanism of nisin and grape seed extract against Listeria monocytogenes in broth and on shrimp through NMR-based metabolomics approach.Int J Food Microbiol. 2020 Apr 16; 319:108494.IJ
Nisin and grape seed extract (GSE) have been widely used as food preservatives; however, the mechanism against pathogens at molecular level has not been well elucidated. This work aimed to investigate their antimicrobial effect against Listeria monocytogenes and to elucidate the mechanism by NMR-based metabolomics. Nisin exhibited enhanced in vitro antilisterial effect when combined with GSE (4.49 log CFU/mL reduction). Marked change in cell membrane permeability was observed in the combination group using confocal laser scanning microscopy; this was verified by increased leakage of protein and nucleic acid. The underlying antimicrobial mechanism was revealed by NMR coupled with multivariate analysis. Significant decreases in threonine, cysteine, ATP, NADP, adenine were observed, whereas a few of metabolites such as lactic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) increased after nisin-GSE treatment (P < 0.05). Pathway analysis further manifested that the nisin-GSE inhibited the survival of L. monocytogenes by blocking the TCA cycle, amino acid biosynthesis and energy-producing pathway. Lastly, nisin and GSE were applied to shrimp and binary combination showed remarkably antilisterial activity (1.79 log CFU/g reduction). GABA shunt and protein degradation from shrimp compensated the unbalanced glycolysis and amino acid metabolism by providing energy and carbon source for L. monocytogenes inoculated on shrimp. Thus, they were more tolerant to nisin and GSE stresses as compared to the broth-grown culture.