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Concerning Auricular Vagal Nerve Stimulation: Occult Neural Networks.
Front Hum Neurosci 2019; 13:421FH

Abstract

Auricular vagal nerve stimulation (AVNS) is an evolving neuromodulation technology that has a wide range of therapeutic applications across multiple disciplines of medical science. To date, AVNS results had been interpreted in the context of a monolog concept of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN): that this is the sole network of the mechanism of action and/or structure in the auricular area of the stimulation in the context of activations in the brainstem nuclei, including the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), locus coeruleus (LC), trigeminal brainstem nuclei, and the nucleus cuneatus. This review considers the overlooked aspects of neural networks, connections, hijacking axons from cranial nerves and cervical sympathetic ganglions, the inhomogeneous distribution of perivascular sympathetic nerves, and intrinsic/extrinsic auricular muscles in the auricular zone that can explain the vagal and non-vagal nucleus activations in AVNS. In addition, the unique cortical representation of the human ear and interspecies differences in the auricula are discussed. The detailed auricular anatomy of the AVNS zone explored in the present study references structural and functional neural network information to overcome default designs and misinterpretations of existing research on AVNS to provide a better foundation for future investigations that use this modality.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Anatomy, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Brain Health Research Centre, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Centre for Health Systems and Technologies, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Medical Technologies Centre of Research Excellence, Auckland, New Zealand.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31920585

Citation

Cakmak, Yusuf Ozgur. "Concerning Auricular Vagal Nerve Stimulation: Occult Neural Networks." Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, vol. 13, 2019, p. 421.
Cakmak YO. Concerning Auricular Vagal Nerve Stimulation: Occult Neural Networks. Front Hum Neurosci. 2019;13:421.
Cakmak, Y. O. (2019). Concerning Auricular Vagal Nerve Stimulation: Occult Neural Networks. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 13, p. 421. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2019.00421.
Cakmak YO. Concerning Auricular Vagal Nerve Stimulation: Occult Neural Networks. Front Hum Neurosci. 2019;13:421. PubMed PMID: 31920585.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Concerning Auricular Vagal Nerve Stimulation: Occult Neural Networks. A1 - Cakmak,Yusuf Ozgur, Y1 - 2019/12/12/ PY - 2019/07/31/received PY - 2019/11/13/accepted PY - 2020/1/11/entrez PY - 2020/1/11/pubmed PY - 2020/1/11/medline KW - auricular KW - electrostimulation KW - facial nerve KW - nVNS KW - network KW - neuroanatomy KW - neuromodulation KW - vagus SP - 421 EP - 421 JF - Frontiers in human neuroscience JO - Front Hum Neurosci VL - 13 N2 - Auricular vagal nerve stimulation (AVNS) is an evolving neuromodulation technology that has a wide range of therapeutic applications across multiple disciplines of medical science. To date, AVNS results had been interpreted in the context of a monolog concept of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN): that this is the sole network of the mechanism of action and/or structure in the auricular area of the stimulation in the context of activations in the brainstem nuclei, including the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), locus coeruleus (LC), trigeminal brainstem nuclei, and the nucleus cuneatus. This review considers the overlooked aspects of neural networks, connections, hijacking axons from cranial nerves and cervical sympathetic ganglions, the inhomogeneous distribution of perivascular sympathetic nerves, and intrinsic/extrinsic auricular muscles in the auricular zone that can explain the vagal and non-vagal nucleus activations in AVNS. In addition, the unique cortical representation of the human ear and interspecies differences in the auricula are discussed. The detailed auricular anatomy of the AVNS zone explored in the present study references structural and functional neural network information to overcome default designs and misinterpretations of existing research on AVNS to provide a better foundation for future investigations that use this modality. SN - 1662-5161 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31920585/Concerning_Auricular_Vagal_Nerve_Stimulation:_Occult_Neural_Networks L2 - https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2019.00421 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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