Young Learners' Regulation of Practice Behavior in Adaptive Learning Technologies.Front Psychol 2019; 10:2792FP
Although research indicates positive effects of Adaptive Learning Technologies (ALTs) on learning, we know little about young learners' regulation intentions in this context. Learners' intentions and self-evaluation determine the signals they deduce to drive self-regulated learning. This study had a twofold approach as it investigated the effect of feed-up and feed-forward reports on practice behavior and learning and explored learners' self-evaluation of goal-attainment, performance and accuracy. In the experimental condition, learners described their goals and self-evaluated their progress in feed-up and forward reports. We found no conclusive effects of the feed-up and forward reports on learners' regulation of practice behavior and learning. Furthermore, results indicated that young learners' self-evaluations of goal attainment and performance were biased. Contrary to other research, we found learners both over- and underestimated performance which was strongly associated with over- or underestimation of goal attainment. Hence the signals learners used to drive regulation were often incorrect, tending to induce over- or under-practicing. Similarly, we found a bias in self-evaluation of accuracy and accuracy attainment. Learners over- or underestimated their accuracy, which was associated with over- or underestimation of accuracy attainment, which may in turn have affected effort regulation. We concluded that goal setting and self-evaluation in feed-up and forward reports was not enough to deduce valid regulatory signals. Our results indicate that young learners needed performance feedback to support correct self-evaluation and to correctly drive regulatory actions in ATLs.