Nanoformulated SOD1 ameliorates the combined NASH and alcohol-associated liver disease partly via regulating CYP2E1 expression in adipose tissue and liver.Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2020 03 01; 318(3):G428-G438.AJ
Enhanced free fatty acid (FFA) flux from adipose tissue (AT) to liver plays an important role in the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and alcohol-associated liver disease (AALD). We determined the effectiveness of nanoformulated superoxide dismutase 1 (Nano) in attenuating liver injury in a mouse model exhibiting a combination of NASH and AALD. Male C57BL6/J mice were fed a chow diet (CD) or a high-fat diet (HF) for 10 wk followed by pair feeding of the Lieber-DeCarli control (control) or ethanol (ET) diet for 4 wk. Nano was administered once every other day for the last 2 wk of ET feeding. Mice were divided into 1) CD + control diet (CD + Cont), 2) high-fat diet (HF) + control diet (HF + Cont), 3) HF + Cont + Nano, 4) HF + ET diet (HF + ET), and 5) HF + ET + Nano. The total fat mass, visceral AT mass (VAT), and VAT perilipin 1 content were significantly lower only in HF + ET-fed mice but not in HF + ET + Nano-treated mice compared with controls. The HF + ET-fed mice showed an upregulation of VAT CYP2E1 protein, and Nano abrogated this effect. We noted a significant rise in plasma FFAs, ALT, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in HF + ET-fed mice, which was blunted in HF + ET + Nano-treated mice. HF + ET-induced increases in hepatic steatosis and inflammatory markers were attenuated upon Nano treatment. Nano reduced hepatic CYP2E1 and enhanced catalase levels in HF + ET-fed mice with a concomitant increase in SOD1 protein and activity in liver. Nano was effective in attenuating AT and liver injury in mice exhibiting a combination of NASH and AALD, partly via reduced CYP2E1-mediated ET metabolism in these organs.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Increased free fatty acid flux from adipose tissue (AT) to liver accompanied by oxidative stress promotes nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and alcohol-associated liver injury (AALD). Obesity increases the severity of AALD. Using a two-hit model involving a high-fat diet and chronic ethanol feeding to mice, and treating them with nanoformulated superoxide dismutase (nanoSOD), we have shown that nanoSOD improves AT lipid storage, reduces CYP2E1 in AT and liver, and attenuates the combined NASH/AALD in mice.