Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Transgenic Testing Does Not Support a Role for Additional Candidate Genes in Wolbachia Male Killing or Cytoplasmic Incompatibility.
mSystems 2020; 5(1)M

Abstract

Endosymbiotic bacteria in the genus Wolbachia remarkably infect nearly half of all arthropod species. They spread in part because of manipulations of host sexual reproduction that enhance the maternal transmission of the bacteria, including male killing (death of infected males) and unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI; death of offspring from infected fathers and uninfected mothers). Recent discoveries identified several genes in prophage WO of Wolbachia (wmk, cifA, and cifB) that fully or partially recapitulate male killing or CI when transgenically expressed in Drosophila melanogaster However, it is not yet fully resolved if other gene candidates contribute to these phenotypes. Here, we transgenically tested 10 additional gene candidates for their involvement in male killing and/or CI. The results show that despite sequence and protein architecture similarities or comparative associations with reproductive parasitism, transgenic expression of the candidates does not recapitulate male killing or CI. Sequence analysis across Wmk and its closest relatives reveals amino acids that may be important to its function. In addition, evidence is presented to propose new hypotheses regarding the relationship between wmk transcript length and its ability to kill a given host, as well as copy number of wmk homologs within a bacterial strain, which may be predictive of host resistance. Together, these analyses continue to build the evidence for identification of wmk, cifA, and cifB as the major genes that have thus far been shown to cause reproductive parasitism in Wolbachia, and the transgenic resources provide a basis for further functional study of phage WO genes.IMPORTANCE Wolbachia are widespread bacterial endosymbionts that manipulate the reproduction of diverse arthropods to spread through a population and can substantially shape host evolution. Recently, reports identified three prophage WO genes (wmk, cifA, and cifB) that transgenically recapitulate many aspects of reproductive manipulation in Drosophila melanogaster Here, we transgenically tested 10 additional gene candidates for CI and/or male killing in flies. The results yield no evidence for the involvement of these gene candidates in reproductive parasitism, bolstering the evidence for identification of the cif and wmk genes as the major factors involved in their phenotypes. In addition, evidence supports new hypotheses for prediction of male-killing phenotypes or lack thereof based on wmk transcript length and copy number. These experiments inform efforts to understand the full basis of reproductive parasitism for basic and applied purposes and lay the foundation for future work on the function of an interesting group of Wolbachia and phage WO genes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA. Vanderbilt Microbiome Initiative, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA. Vanderbilt Microbiome Initiative, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA s.bordenstein@vanderbilt.edu. Vanderbilt Microbiome Initiative, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA. Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA. Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31937677

Citation

Perlmutter, Jessamyn I., et al. "Transgenic Testing Does Not Support a Role for Additional Candidate Genes in Wolbachia Male Killing or Cytoplasmic Incompatibility." MSystems, vol. 5, no. 1, 2020.
Perlmutter JI, Meyers JE, Bordenstein SR. Transgenic Testing Does Not Support a Role for Additional Candidate Genes in Wolbachia Male Killing or Cytoplasmic Incompatibility. mSystems. 2020;5(1).
Perlmutter, J. I., Meyers, J. E., & Bordenstein, S. R. (2020). Transgenic Testing Does Not Support a Role for Additional Candidate Genes in Wolbachia Male Killing or Cytoplasmic Incompatibility. MSystems, 5(1), doi:10.1128/mSystems.00658-19.
Perlmutter JI, Meyers JE, Bordenstein SR. Transgenic Testing Does Not Support a Role for Additional Candidate Genes in Wolbachia Male Killing or Cytoplasmic Incompatibility. mSystems. 2020 Jan 14;5(1) PubMed PMID: 31937677.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Transgenic Testing Does Not Support a Role for Additional Candidate Genes in Wolbachia Male Killing or Cytoplasmic Incompatibility. AU - Perlmutter,Jessamyn I, AU - Meyers,Jane E, AU - Bordenstein,Seth R, Y1 - 2020/01/14/ PY - 2020/1/16/entrez KW - Drosophila KW - Wolbachia KW - cytoplasmic incompatibility KW - male killing KW - prophage WO KW - reproductive parasitism KW - transgenics JF - mSystems JO - mSystems VL - 5 IS - 1 N2 - Endosymbiotic bacteria in the genus Wolbachia remarkably infect nearly half of all arthropod species. They spread in part because of manipulations of host sexual reproduction that enhance the maternal transmission of the bacteria, including male killing (death of infected males) and unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI; death of offspring from infected fathers and uninfected mothers). Recent discoveries identified several genes in prophage WO of Wolbachia (wmk, cifA, and cifB) that fully or partially recapitulate male killing or CI when transgenically expressed in Drosophila melanogaster However, it is not yet fully resolved if other gene candidates contribute to these phenotypes. Here, we transgenically tested 10 additional gene candidates for their involvement in male killing and/or CI. The results show that despite sequence and protein architecture similarities or comparative associations with reproductive parasitism, transgenic expression of the candidates does not recapitulate male killing or CI. Sequence analysis across Wmk and its closest relatives reveals amino acids that may be important to its function. In addition, evidence is presented to propose new hypotheses regarding the relationship between wmk transcript length and its ability to kill a given host, as well as copy number of wmk homologs within a bacterial strain, which may be predictive of host resistance. Together, these analyses continue to build the evidence for identification of wmk, cifA, and cifB as the major genes that have thus far been shown to cause reproductive parasitism in Wolbachia, and the transgenic resources provide a basis for further functional study of phage WO genes.IMPORTANCE Wolbachia are widespread bacterial endosymbionts that manipulate the reproduction of diverse arthropods to spread through a population and can substantially shape host evolution. Recently, reports identified three prophage WO genes (wmk, cifA, and cifB) that transgenically recapitulate many aspects of reproductive manipulation in Drosophila melanogaster Here, we transgenically tested 10 additional gene candidates for CI and/or male killing in flies. The results yield no evidence for the involvement of these gene candidates in reproductive parasitism, bolstering the evidence for identification of the cif and wmk genes as the major factors involved in their phenotypes. In addition, evidence supports new hypotheses for prediction of male-killing phenotypes or lack thereof based on wmk transcript length and copy number. These experiments inform efforts to understand the full basis of reproductive parasitism for basic and applied purposes and lay the foundation for future work on the function of an interesting group of Wolbachia and phage WO genes. SN - 2379-5077 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31937677/Transgenic_Testing_Does_Not_Support_a_Role_for_Additional_Candidate_Genes_in_Wolbachia_Male_Killing_or_Cytoplasmic_Incompatibility L2 - https://doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00658-19 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
Unbound Prime app for iOS iPhone iPadUnbound PubMed app for AndroidAlso Available:
Unbound MEDLINE
Unbound PubMed app for Windows